Wikipedia: Anarchism Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions. These are often described as stateless societies,"ANARCHISM, a social philosophy that rejects authoritarian government and maintains that voluntary institutions are best suited to express man's natural social tendencies. Etymology and terminology History Origins First International and the Paris Commune Organised labour Propaganda of the deed and illegalism Russian Revolution and other uprisings of the 1910s Conflicts with European fascist regimes Spanish Revolution Post-war years Contemporary anarchism Anarchist schools of thought Classical anarchist schools of thought Mutualism Individualist anarchism Social anarchism Collectivist anarchism Anarcho-communism Anarcho-syndicalism Post-classical schools of thought Internal issues and debates Topics of interest Free love Libertarian education and freethought Criticisms See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Autism | duration = Long term Characteristics Social development Communication Repetitive behavior Other symptoms Causes Mechanism Pathophysiology Neuropsychology Diagnosis Classification Screening Prevention Management Education Medication Alternative medicine Cost Society and culture Prognosis Epidemiology History References External links Wikipedia: Albedo Albedo () is a measure for reflectance or optical brightness (Latin albedo, "whiteness") of a surface. It is dimensionless and measured on a scale from zero (corresponding to a black body that absorbs all incident radiation) to one (corresponding to a white body that reflects all incident radiation). Terrestrial albedo White-sky and black-sky albedo Astronomical albedo Examples of terrestrial albedo effects Illumination Insolation effects Climate and weather Albedo–temperature feedback Snow Small-scale effects Solar photovoltaic effects Trees Water Clouds Aerosol effects Black carbon Human activities Other types of albedo See also References External links Wikipedia: A A (named , plural As, A's, as, a's or aes}}) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is similar to the Ancient Greek letter alpha, from which it derives. History Typographic variants Use in writing systems English Other languages Other systems Other uses Related characters Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets Computing codes Other representations Notes Footnotes References External links Wikipedia: Alabama We dare to defend our rights Etymology History Pre-European settlement European settlement 19th century 20th century Geography Climate Flora and fauna Demographics Ancestry Census-designated areas Metropolitan areas Cities Language Religion Christianity Other faiths Health Economy Largest employers Agriculture Industry Tourism Healthcare Banking Electronics Construction Law and government State government Taxes County and local governments Politics Elections State elections Local elections Federal elections Education Primary and secondary education Colleges and universities Media Culture Literature Sports College sports Professional sports Transportation Aviation Rail Roads Ports See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Achilles In Greek mythology, Achilles (, ; ) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad. His mother was the immortal nereid Thetis, and his father, the mortal Peleus, was the king of the Myrmidons. Etymology Birth and early years Hidden on Skyros Achilles in the Trojan War Telephus Troilus Achilles in the Iliad Later epic accounts: Fighting Penthesilea and Memnon Achilles' death Achilles and Patroclus The fate of Achilles' armour Achilles, Ajax and a game of petteia Worship and heroic cult Reception during antiquity Achilles in Greek tragedy Achilles in Greek philosophy Achilles in Roman and medieval literature Achilles in modern literature and arts Literature Visual arts Music Architecture Namesakes Notes References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Abraham Lincoln | birth_place = Sinking Spring Farm,near Hodgenville, Kentucky, U.S. Family and childhood Early life and ancestry Marriage and children Early career and militia service U.S. House of Representatives, 1847–49 Prairie lawyer Republican politics 1854–60 Emergence as Republican leader Lincoln–Douglas debates and Cooper Union speech 1860 Presidential nomination and campaign Presidency 1860 election and secession The Civil War Union military strategy General McClellan Emancipation Proclamation Gettysburg Address (1863) General Grant 1864 re-election Reconstruction Redefining the republic and republicanism Other enactments Judicial appointments Supreme Court appointments Other judicial appointments States admitted to the Union Assassination and funeral Religious and philosophical beliefs Health Historical reputation Memory and memorials See also References Bibliography Cited in footnotes Historiography Additional references External links Official Organizations Media coverage Other Wikipedia: Aristotle | death_place =Euboea, Greece, Macedonian Empire Life Thought Logic History Analytics and the Organon Aristotle's epistemology Geology Physics Five elements Motion Causality, the four causes Optics Chance and spontaneity Metaphysics Substance, potentiality and actuality Universals and particulars Biology and medicine Empirical research program Classification of living things Successor: Theophrastus Influence on Hellenistic medicine Psychology Memory Recollection Dreams Sleep Theory of dreams Practical philosophy Ethics Politics Rhetoric and poetics Views on women Loss and preservation of his works Legacy Later Greek philosophers Influence on Byzantine scholars Influence on Islamic theologians Influence on Western Christian theologians Post-Enlightenment thinkers List of works Eponyms See also Notes and references Further reading External links Wikipedia: An American in Paris An American in Paris is a jazz-influenced orchestral piece by the American composer George Gershwin, written in 1928. Inspired by the time Gershwin had spent in Paris, it evokes the sights and energy of the French capital in the 1920s and is one of his best-known compositions. Background Composition Instrumentation Response Preservation status Recordings Use in film References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Academy Award for Best Production Design The Academy Award for Best Production Design recognizes achievement for art direction in film. The category's original name was Best Art Direction, but was changed to its current name in 2012 for the 85th Academy Awards. Superlatives Best Interior Decoration 1920s 1930s 1940s Best Art Direction – Set Decoration 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 2000s 2010s See also References Wikipedia: Academy Awards | website = History Institutions Oscar statuette Other awards presented by the Academy Academy Award of Merit (Oscar statuette) Naming Engraving Ownership of Oscar statuettes Nomination Voters Rules Awards ceremonies Telecast TV ratings Venues Awards of Merit categories Current categories Discontinued categories Proposed categories Special categories Current special categories Discontinued special categories Criticism Accusations of commercialism Accusations of bias Allegations of a lack of diversity Symbolism or sentimentalization Refusing the award Associated events Presenter and performer gifts Television ratings and advertisement prices Trademark See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Actrius | starring = Synopsis Cast Recognition Screenings Reception Awards and nominations References External links Wikipedia: Animalia (book) Animalia is an illustrated children's book by Graeme Base. It was originally published in 1986, followed by a tenth anniversary edition in 1996, and a 25th anniversary edition in 2012. Synopsis Related products Adaptations Awards References External links Wikipedia: International Atomic Time International Atomic Time (TAI, from the French name Temps atomique 1975) is a high-precision atomic coordinate time standard based on the notional passage of proper time on Earth's geoid. It is the principal realisation of Terrestrial Time (except for a fixed offset of epoch). Operation History See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Altruism Altruism or selflessness is the principle or practice of concern for the welfare of others. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures and a core aspect of various religious traditions and secular worldviews, though the concept of "others" toward whom concern should be directed can vary among cultures and religions. The notion of altruism Scientific viewpoints Anthropology Evolutionary explanations Neurobiology Psychology Sociology Pathological altruism Religious viewpoints Buddhism Jainism Christianity Islam Judaism Sikhism Hinduism Philosophy Genetics See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Ayn Rand | birth_date = Life Early life Arrival in the United States Early fiction The Fountainhead and political activism Atlas Shrugged and Objectivism Later years Philosophy Reception and legacy Reviews Popular interest Political influence Academic reaction Objectivist movement Selected works Notes References Works cited External links Wikipedia: Alain Connes |birth_place = Draguignan, France Work Awards and honours Books See also References External links Wikipedia: Allan Dwan | birth_place = Toronto, Ontario, Canada Early life Career Partial filmography as director See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Algeria }}}} Etymology History Ancient history Middle Ages Privateers era French colonization (1830–1962) The first three decades of independence (1962–1991) Civil War (1991–2002) and aftermath Geography Climate and hydrology Fauna and flora Politics Foreign relations Military Human rights Administrative divisions Economy Hydrocarbons Research and alternative energy sources Labour market Tourism Transport Demographics Ethnic groups Languages Religion Cities Culture Media Art Literature Music Cinema Sports Cuisine Health Education See also Notes References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: List of Atlas Shrugged characters This is a list of characters in Ayn Rand's novel Atlas Shrugged. Major characters Protagonists Dagny Taggart Francisco d'Anconia John Galt Henry "Hank" Rearden Eddie Willers Ragnar Danneskjöld Antagonists James Taggart Lillian Rearden Dr. Floyd Ferris Dr. Robert Stadler Wesley Mouch Secondary characters Notes References External links Wikipedia: Anthropology Anthropology is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies. Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the norms and values of societies. Origin and development of the term Through the 19th century 20th and 21st centuries Fields Sociocultural Biological Archaeological Linguistic Key topics by field: sociocultural Art, media, music, dance and film Art Media Music Visual Economic, political economic, applied and development Economic Political economy Applied Development Kinship, feminism, gender and sexuality Kinship Feminist Medical, nutritional, psychological, cognitive and transpersonal Medical Nutritional Psychological Cognitive Transpersonal Political and legal Political Legal Public Nature, science and technology Cyborg Digital Ecological Historical Religion Urban Key topics by field: archaeological and biological Anthrozoology Biocultural Evolutionary Forensic Palaeoanthropology Organizations List of major organizations Ethics Cultural relativism Military involvement Post–World War II developments Basic trends Commonalities between fields See also Notes References Further reading Dictionaries and encyclopedias Fieldnotes and memoirs Histories Textbooks and key theoretical works External links Wikipedia: Agricultural science Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. (Veterinary science, but not animal science, is often excluded from the definition. Agriculture, agricultural science, and agronomy Agricultural biotechnology Fertilizer A local science History Prominent agricultural scientists Agriculture crisis Fields or related disciplines See also Further reading References External links Wikipedia: Alchemy Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa and Asia. It aimed to purify, mature, and perfect certain objects... Etymology History Hellenistic Egypt India Muslim world East Asia Medieval Europe Renaissance and early modern Europe Late modern period Women in alchemy Modern historical research Core concepts Hermeticism Magnum opus Modern alchemy Traditional medicine Psychology Literature See also Notes References Citations Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Alien Alien primarily refers to: Science and technology Arts and entertainment Films Literature Music Performers Albums Songs Video games Other media Other uses See also Wikipedia: Astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They look at stars, planets, moons, comets and galaxies, as well as many other celestial objects — either in observational astronomy, in analyzing the data, or in theoretical astronomy. Academic Amateur astronomers See also References Specific General External links Wikipedia: ASCII ASCII ( ), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication. ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment, and other devices. Overview History Design considerations Bit width Internal organization Character order Character groups Control characters Printable characters Character set Use Variants and derivations 7-bit codes 8-bit codes Unicode See also Notes References Further reading External links (PLEASE NOTE) Wikipedia: Austin (disambiguation) Austin is the capital of Texas in the United States. Geographical locations Australia Canada France United States of America People Schools Religion Business Entertainment Other uses See also Wikipedia: Animation Animation is the process of making the illusion of motion and the illusion of change by means of the rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon and beta movement, but the exact causes are still unclear. History Techniques Traditional animation Full animation Limited animation Rotoscoping Live-action/animation Stop motion animation Computer animation 2D animation 3D animation 3D terms Mechanical animation Other animation styles, techniques, and approaches Production Criticism Awards See also Notes References Citations Bibliography Online External links Wikipedia: Apollo Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: , Apollōn ( ); Doric: , Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: , Apeilōn; Aeolic: , Aploun; ) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of music, truth and prophecy, healing, the sun and light, plague, poetry, and more. Etymology Greco-Roman epithets Sun Wolf Origin and birth Place of worship Healing and disease Founder and protector Prophecy and truth Music and arts Archery Celtic epithets and cult titles Origins Healer and god-protector from evil Dorian origin Minoan origin Anatolian origin Oracular cult Oracular shrines Temples of Apollo Greek temples Etruscan and Roman temples Mythology Birth Youth Trojan War Admetus Niobe Consorts and children Female lovers Consorts and children: extended list Male lovers Apollo's lyre Apollo in the Oresteia Other stories Musical contests Pan Marsyas Cinyras Roman Apollo Festivals Attributes and symbols Apollo in the arts Art and Greek philosophy Archaic sculpture Classical sculpture Pediments and friezes Hellenistic Greece-Rome Modern reception Genealogy See also Notes References Primary sources Secondary sources External links Wikipedia: Andre Agassi | residence = Las Vegas, Nevada 1970–85: Early life International tennis career biography 1986–1993: Breakthrough and the first major title 1994–1997: Rise to the top, Olympic Gold and the fall 1998–2003: Return to glory and Career Super Slam 2004–2006: Final years Earnings Post-retirement Playing style Business ventures Equipment and endorsements Personal life Relationships and family Autobiography Politics Philanthropy Career statistics Singles timeline overview Grand Slam finals Open Era records Professional awards Recognition Video Video games See also Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Austroasiatic languages The Austroasiatic languages, in recent classifications synonymous with Mon–Khmer,Bradley (2012) notes, MK in the wider sense including the Munda languages of eastern South Asia is also known as Austroasiatic. are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers. Typology Proto-language Internal classification Diffloth (1974) Ilia Peiros (2004) Gérard Diffloth (2005) Previously existent branches Sidwell (2009, 2011) Writing systems Austroasiatic migrations See also Notes References Sources Further reading External links Wikipedia: Afroasiatic languages Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic),Daniel Don Nanjira, African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: From Antiquity to the 21st Century, (ABC-CLIO: 2010). is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects. Etymology Distribution and branches Subgrouping Position among the world's languages Date of Afroasiatic Afroasiatic Urheimat Similarities in grammar and syntax Shared vocabulary Etymological bibliography See also References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Andorra a Etymology History Prehistory The Iberian and Roman Andorra The Visigoths and Carolingians: the legend of Charlemagne Medieval Age: The Paréages and the founding of the Co-Principality 16th to 18th centuries 19th century: the New Reform and the Andorran Question 20th century Politics Law and criminal justice Foreign relations, defence, and security Military Police Corps GIPA Fire brigade Geography Parishes Physical geography Climate Economy Demographics Population Languages Religion Statistics Largest cities Education Schools University of Andorra Virtual Studies Centre Healthcare Transport Media and telecommunications Culture Sports Major achievements See also References External links Wikipedia: Arithmetic mean In mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean (, stress on third syllable of "arithmetic"), or simply the mean or average when the context is clear, is the sum of a collection of numbers divided by the number of numbers in the collection. The collection is often a set of results of an experiment, or a set of results from a survey. Definition Motivating properties Contrast with median Generalizations Weighted average Continuous probability distributions Angles See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: American Football Conference The American Football Conference (AFC) is one of the two conferences of the National Football League (NFL), the highest professional level of American football in the United States. This conference and its counterpart, the National Football Conference (NFC), currently contain 16 teams each, making up the 32 teams of the NFL. Current teams Season structure History Logo References Wikipedia: Animal Farm Animal Farm is an allegorical novella by George Orwell, first published in England on 17 August 1945. According to Orwell, the book reflects events leading up to the Russian Revolution of 1917 and then on into the Stalinist era of the Soviet Union. Plot summary Characters Pigs Humans Horses and donkeys Other animals Composition and publication Origin Efforts to find a publisher Preface Critical response Analysis Animalism Significance and allegory Adaptations Films Radio dramatizations Stage productions Popular culture Music Television Video game Editions See also Books Notes References External links Wikipedia: Amphibian | image = Amphibians.png Classification Evolutionary history Characteristics Anura Caudata Gymnophiona Anatomy and physiology Skin Skeletal system and locomotion Circulatory system Nervous and sensory systems Digestive and excretory systems Respiratory system Reproduction Life cycle Eggs Larvae Frogs Salamanders Caecilians Parental care Feeding and diet Vocalization Territorial behaviour Defence mechanisms Cognition Conservation See also References Cited texts Further reading External links Wikipedia: Alaska }} Etymology Geography Regions South Central Southeast Interior Southwest North Slope Aleutian Islands Natural features Land ownership Climate History Pre-colonization Colonization Territory Statehood Good Friday earthquake Discovery of oil Alaska Heritage Resources Survey Demographics Ancestry Languages Religion Economy Energy Permanent Fund Cost of living Agriculture and fishing Transportation Roads Rail Marine transport Air transport Other transport Data transport Law and government State government State politics Taxes Federal politics Cities, towns and boroughs Cities and census-designated places (by population) Education Public health and public safety Culture Music Alaska in film and on television State symbols See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Agriculture Agriculture is the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization. Etymology and terminology History Agriculture and civilization Types of agriculture Contemporary agriculture Workforce Safety Agricultural production systems Crop cultivation systems Crop statistics Livestock production systems Production practices Crop alteration and biotechnology Genetic engineering Environmental impact Livestock issues Land and water issues Pesticides Climate change Sustainability Agricultural economics Agricultural science List of countries by agricultural output Energy and agriculture Policy See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Aldous Huxley | birth_place = Godalming, England Early life Career Bloomsbury Set United States Post World War II Association with Vedanta Eyesight Personal life Death Awards Film adaptations of Huxley's work Works References Sources Further reading External links Wikipedia: Ada Ada may refer to: Places Africa Asia Australia and New Zealand Europe North America Outer space Film and television Biology Computer science Air travel Schools Personal name Other uses See also Wikipedia: Aberdeen (disambiguation) Aberdeen is a city in Scotland, United Kingdom. Places Africa Asia Hong Kong India Sri Lanka Australia Caribbean Europe North America Canada United States Education Entertainment Other transportation Ships Sports Business See also Wikipedia: Algae }} Etymology and study Classification Relationship to land plants Morphology Physiology Symbiotic algae Lichens Coral reefs Sea sponges Lifecycle Numbers Distribution Ecology Cultural associations Uses Agar Alginates Energy source Fertilizer Nutrition Pollution control Bioremediation Pigments Stabilizing substances Additional images See also References Bibliography General Regional External links Wikipedia: Analysis of variance Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models used to analyze the differences among group means and their associated procedures (such as "variation" among and between groups), developed by statistician and evolutionary biologist Ronald Fisher. In the ANOVA setting, the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components attributable to different sources of variation. History Motivating example Background and terminology Design-of-experiments terms Classes of models Fixed-effects models Random-effects models Mixed-effects models Assumptions Textbook analysis using a normal distribution Randomization-based analysis Unit-treatment additivity Derived linear model Statistical models for observational data Summary of assumptions Characteristics Logic Partitioning of the sum of squares The F-test Extended logic For a single factor For multiple factors Worked numeric examples Associated analysis Preparatory analysis The number of experimental units Power analysis Effect size Follow-up analysis Model confirmation Follow-up tests Study designs Cautions Generalizations Connection to linear regression Example See also Footnotes Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Alkane right|thumb|Chemical structure of [[methane, the simplest alkane]] Structure classification Isomerism Nomenclature Linear alkanes Branched alkanes Saturated cyclic hydrocarbons Trivial/common names Physical properties Table of alkanes Boiling point Melting points Conductivity and solubility Bond lengths and bond angles Conformation Spectroscopic properties Infrared spectroscopy NMR spectroscopy Mass spectrometry Chemical properties Reactions with oxygen (combustion reaction) Reactions with halogens Cracking Isomerization and reformation Other reactions Occurrence Occurrence of alkanes in the Universe Occurrence of alkanes on Earth Biological occurrence Ecological relations Production Petroleum refining Fischer–Tropsch Laboratory preparation Applications Environmental transformations Hazards See also References Further reading Wikipedia: Appellate procedure in the United States United States appellate procedure involves the rules and regulations for filing appeals in state courts and federal courts. The nature of an appeal can vary greatly depending on the type of case and the rules of the court in the jurisdiction where the case was prosecuted. Access to appellant status Ability to appeal Direct or collateral: Appealing criminal convictions Appellate review Direct Appeal Preservation Issues State Post Conviction Relief: Collateral Appeal Habeas Corpus Notice of appeal Appellate procedure Results See also References Wikipedia: Answer (law) In law, an Answer was originally a solemn assertion in opposition to someone or something, and thus generally any counter-statement or defense, a reply to a question or response, or objection, or a correct solution of a problem. Notes External links Wikipedia: Appellate court }} New Zealand Sri Lanka United States Institutional titles See also References Wikipedia: Arraignment Arraignment is a formal reading of a criminal charging document in the presence of the defendant to inform the defendant of the charges against him or her. In response to arraignment, the accused is expected to enter a plea. Australia Canada France Germany New Zealand South Africa United Kingdom United States Form of the arraignment Video arraignment Guilty and not-guilty pleas Pre-trial release See also References Wikipedia: America the Beautiful "America the Beautiful" is an American patriotic song. The lyrics were written by Katharine Lee Bates, and the music was composed by church organist and choirmaster Samuel A. History Lyrics Popular versions Idioms Books References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Assistive technology Assistive technology is an umbrella term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities and also includes the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. Assistive technology promotes greater independence by enabling people to perform tasks that they were formerly unable to accomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing, by providing enhancements to, or changing methods of interacting with, the technology needed to accomplish such tasks. Adaptive technology Mobility impairments Wheelchairs Transfer devices Walkers Prosthesis Visual impairments Screen readers Braille and braille embossers Desktop video magnifier Screen magnification software Large-print and tactile keyboards Navigation Assistance Wearable Technology Personal emergency response systems Accessibility software Hearing impairments Hearing aids Assistive listening devices Amplified telephone equipment Augmentative and alternative communication Cognitive impairments Memory aids Educational software In sports In education Computer accessibility Home automation Impacts See also References Wikipedia: Abacus Abacı|the medieval book|Liber Abaci}} Etymology History Mesopotamian Egyptian Persian Greek Chinese Roman Indian Japanese Korean Native American Russian School abacus Renaissance abaci gallery Uses by the blind Binary abacus See also Notes Footnotes References Further reading External links Tutorials Abacus curiosities Wikipedia: Acid An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).IUPAC Gold Book - acid Definitions and concepts Arrhenius acids Brønsted–Lowry acids Lewis acids Dissociation and equilibrium Nomenclature Acid strength Chemical characteristics Monoprotic acids Polyprotic acids Neutralization Weak acid–weak base equilibrium Applications of acids Acid catalysis Biological occurrence Common acids Mineral acids (inorganic acids) Sulfonic acids Carboxylic acids Halogenated carboxylic acids Vinylogous carboxylic acids Nucleic acids References External links Wikipedia: Asphalt Asphalt (), also known as bitumen (UK English: ,Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary US English: )American Heritage Dictionary is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, and is classed as a pitch. Terminology Etymology Modern terminology Composition Occurrence History Ancient times Continental Europe United Kingdom United States Canada Photography and art Modern use Global use Rolled asphalt concrete Mastic asphalt Asphalt emulsion Synthetic crude oil Non-upgraded crude bitumen Radioactive waste encapsulation matrix Other uses Production Oil sands Alternatives and bioasphalt Albanian deposits Health and safety See also Notes References Sources External links Wikipedia: American National Standards Institute 19 October 1918, Minutes, American Engineering Standards Committee (AESC), p. 1 History Members Process International activities Standards panels American national standards Other initiatives See also References External links Wikipedia: Argument (disambiguation) In logic and philosophy, an argument is an attempt to persuade someone of something, or give evidence or reasons for accepting a particular conclusion. Mathematics and computer science Language and rhetoric Music Other uses Wikipedia: Apollo 11 | COSPAR_ID = Framework Crew Backup crew Support crew Flight directors Call signs Insignia Mementos Mission highlights Launch and flight to lunar orbit Lunar descent Landing Lunar surface operations Lunar ascent and return Splashdown and quarantine Celebration Moon race Spacecraft location 40th anniversary events Gallery See also Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Apollo 8 | COSPAR_ID = 1968-118A Crew Backup crew Mission control Mission insignia Planning Saturn V Mission Parameter summary Launch and trans-lunar injection Lunar trajectory Lunar sphere of influence Lunar orbit Earthrise Unplanned manual re-alignment Cruise back to Earth and re-entry Historical importance Spacecraft location In popular culture See also Notes References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Astronaut An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. Although generally reserved for professional space travelers, the terms are sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists. Definition Terminology English Russian Chinese Other terms Space travel milestones Age milestones Duration and distance milestones Civilian and non-government milestones Self-funded travelers Training NASA candidacy requirements Commander and Pilot Mission Specialist Mission Specialist Educator Health risks of space travel Food and drink Insignia Deaths See also References External links Wikipedia: A Modest Proposal A Modest Proposal For preventing the Children of Poor People From being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country, and For making them Beneficial to the Publick, commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a Juvenalian satirical essay written and published anonymously by Jonathan Swift in 1729. Swift suggests that the impoverished Irish might ease their economic troubles by selling their children as food for rich gentlemen and ladies. Details Population solutions Rhetoric Influences Tertullian's Apology Defoe's The Generous Projector Mandeville's Modest Defence of Publick Stews Economic themes "People are the riches of a nation" Modern usage Notes References External links Wikipedia: Alkali metal The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian. rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs),. Properties Physical and chemical Lithium Francium Nuclear Periodic trends Atomic and ionic radii First ionisation energy Reactivity Electronegativity Melting and boiling points Density Compounds Hydroxides Intermetallic compounds Compounds with the group 13 elements Compounds with the group 14 elements Nitrides and pnictides Oxides and chalcogenides Halides, hydrides, and pseudohalides Coordination complexes Ammonia solutions Organometallic Organolithium Heavier alkali metals Extensions Pseudo-alkali metals Hydrogen Ammonium and derivatives Cobaltocene and derivatives Thallium Copper, silver, and gold History Occurrence In the Solar System On Earth Production and isolation Applications Biological role and precautions Metals Ions Notes References Wikipedia: Alphabet An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language. This is in contrast to other types of writing systems, such as syllabaries (in which each character represents a syllable) and logographies (in which each character represents a word, morpheme, or semantic unit). Etymology History Ancient Northeast African and Middle Eastern scripts European alphabets Asian alphabets Types Alphabetical order Names of letters Orthography and pronunciation See also References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Atomic number thumb|right|300px|The Rutherford–Bohr model of the [[hydrogen atom ( 1}}) or a hydrogen-like ion (). In this model it is an essential feature that the photon energy (or frequency) of the electromagnetic radiation emitted (shown) when an electron jumps from one orbital to another, be proportional to the mathematical square of atomic charge (). History The periodic table and a natural number for each element The Rutherford-Bohr model and van den Broek Moseley's 1913 experiment Missing elements The proton and the idea of nuclear electrons The discovery of the neutron makes Z the proton number The symbol of Z Chemical properties New elements See also References Wikipedia: Anatomy Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.Merriam Webster Dictionary Anatomy is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things. Definition Animal tissues Connective tissue Epithelium Muscle tissue Nervous tissue Vertebrate anatomy Fish anatomy Amphibian anatomy Reptile anatomy Bird anatomy Mammal anatomy Human anatomy Invertebrate anatomy Arthropod anatomy Other branches of anatomy History Ancient Medieval to early modern Late modern See also Notes Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Affirming the consequent Affirming the consequent, sometimes called converse error, fallacy of the converse or confusion of necessity and sufficiency, is a formal fallacy of inferring the converse from the original statement. The corresponding argument has the general form: Examples See also References Wikipedia: Andrei Tarkovsky Tarkovsky (surname)}} Life Childhood and early life Film school student Career Film career in the Soviet Union Film career outside the Soviet Union Death Filmography Awards Concentrate Plot Background Hoffmanniana Influences Cinematic style Vadim Yusov Sven Nykvist Films about Tarkovsky References External links Wikipedia: Ambiguity Ambiguity is a type of uncertainty of meaning in which several interpretations are [It is thus an attribute of any idea or statement whose intended] meaning cannot be definitively resolved according to a rule or process with a finite number of steps. (The [part of the [[Terminology|term] reflects an idea of "[[2 (number)|two", as in "two meanings". Linguistic forms Music Visual art Constructed language Computer science Mathematical notation Names of functions Expressions Examples of potentially confusing ambiguous mathematical expressions Notations in quantum optics and quantum mechanics Ambiguous terms in physics and mathematics Mathematical interpretation of ambiguity See also References External links Wikipedia: Animal (disambiguation) An animal is a multicellular, eukaryotic organism of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. People Professional wrestlers Books and Publications Film and television Television Fictional characters Music Bands Albums Songs Other See also Wikipedia: Aardvark | image = Porc formiguer.JPG Naming and taxonomy Naming Taxonomy Evolutionary history Subspecies Description Head Digestive system Habitat and range Ecology and behavior Feeding Vocalization Movement Reproduction Conservation Mythology and popular culture Footnotes References External links Wikipedia: Aardwolf }} Taxonomy Etymology Physical characteristics Distribution and habitat Behavior Feeding Breeding Conservation Interaction with humans Notes Footnotes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Adobe Adobe (, ;definition of adobe from Oxford Dictionaries Online. Retrieved 25 December 2010. Description Strength Distribution Etymology Composition Material properties Uses Poured and puddled adobe walls Adobe bricks Adobe wall construction Adobe roof Adobe around the world See also References External links Wikipedia: Adventure An adventure is an exciting or unusual experience. It may also be a bold, usually risky undertaking, with an uncertain outcome. Motivation Adventure in mythology and fiction Outdoors Questing Video games Adventure in nonfiction Adventure sports See also References External links Wikipedia: Asia |population = (1st) Definition and boundaries Asia-Africa boundary Asia–Europe boundary Asia–Oceania boundary Ongoing definition Etymology Bronze Age Classical antiquity History Geography and climate Climate change Economy Tourism Demographics Languages Religions Abrahamic Indian and East Asian religions Modern conflicts Culture Nobel prizes Political geography See also References Bibliography Further reading External links Wikipedia: Aruba | image_map = Aruba in its region.svg History Move towards independence Geography Cities and towns Fauna Flora Climate Demographics Language Religion Regions Government Politics Education Economy Tourism Military Culture Infrastructure Utilities Communications Places of interest Notable people See also References External links Wikipedia: Articles of Confederation |image=Articles page1.jpg Background and context Drafting Operation Ratification Article summaries End of the Revolutionary War Function The Army Foreign policy Taxation and commerce Accomplishments of the Confederation The United States of America under the Articles Signatures Signers Presidents of the Congress Gallery Revision and replacement Legitimacy of closing down Final months See also Notes References and further reading External links Wikipedia: Asia Minor (disambiguation) Asia Minor is an alternative name for Anatolia, the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey. It may also refer to: All article disambiguation pages All disambiguation pages Disambiguation pages Wikipedia: Atlantic Ocean | basin_countries = List of countries, ports Etymology Extent and data Bathymetry Mid-Atlantic Ridge Ocean floor Water characteristics Salinity Water masses Gyres Sargasso Sea Climate Natural hazards Plate tectonics Central Atlantic South Atlantic Closure of the Atlantic History Human origin Old World New World Atlantic World Economy Fisheries Environmental issues See also References Notes Sources Further reading External links Wikipedia: Arthur Schopenhauer |birth_place = Danzig (Gdańsk) Life Philosophy The world as representation Theory of perception The world as will Art and aesthetics Mathematics Ethics Punishment God Psychology Political and social thought Politics Views on women Heredity and eugenics Animal welfare Views on homosexuality Views on pederasty Intellectual interests and affinities Indology Buddhism Influences Critique of Kant and Hegel Critique of the Kantian philosophy Critique of Hegel Criticism of Schopenhauer's personal life Influence Selected bibliography Online See also References Citations Sources Further reading Biographies Other books Articles External links Wikipedia: Angola |)}}}} Etymology History Early migrations and political units Portuguese colonisation Rise of Angolan nationalism Civil war Ceasefire with UNITA Geography Climate Politics Armed forces Police Justice Foreign relations Human rights Administrative divisions Exclave of Cabinda Economy Agriculture Transport Telecommunications Technology Demographics Languages Religion Largest cities Culture Health Education Sports See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Demographics of Angola This article is about the demographic features of the population of Angola, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Population Vital statistics Fertility and Births CIA World Factbook demographic statistics Population growth Sex ratio Health Ethnic groups Religions Education Languages References External links Wikipedia: Politics of Angola Since the adoption of a new constitution in 2010, the politics of Angola takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Angola is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Executive branch Legislative branch Political parties and elections Judicial branch Administrative divisions Political pressure groups and leaders International organization participation See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Economy of Angola $194 billion (PPP) (2017 est.)Rank: 65 (2017 est. History 1990s 2000s Overview Foreign trade Resources Petroleum Diamonds Iron See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Transport in Angola Transport in Angola comprises: Railways Waterways Pipelines Ports and harbors Merchant marine Airports Airports - with paved runways Airports - with unpaved runways Angolan Airlines History References Wikipedia: Angolan Armed Forces Geraldo Sachipengo Nunda is a former UNITA general. See http://www. History Army General description Equipment Infantry Weapons Main Battle Tanks Armoured Vehicles Artillery Anti-Aircraft weaponry Other Vehicles Air Force Navy Special forces Foreign deployments References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Angola The foreign relations of Angola are based on Angola's strong support of U.S. Sub-Saharan Africa Cape Verde Democratic Republic of the Congo Guinea-Bissau Namibia Nigeria South Africa Zimbabwe Europe Armenia Bulgaria Denmark France Portugal Russia Serbia Vatican Americas Argentina Brazil Canada Cuba Mexico United States Asia China Israel Japan Pakistan South Korea Vietnam See also References Wikipedia: Albert Sidney Johnston |death_date= Early life and education Marriage and family Texas Army United States Army Utah War Civil War Confederate command in Western Theater Battle of Mill Springs Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Nashville Concentration at Corinth Battle of Shiloh and death Legacy and honors See also Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Android (robot) Android}} Etymology Projects Japan Singapore South Korea United States Use in fiction See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Alberta ("Strong and free") Etymology Geography Climate Ecology Flora Fauna Paleontology History Demographics Municipalities Economy Industry Agriculture and forestry Tourism Government and politics Taxation Law enforcement Military Transportation Road Public transit Air Rail Health care Education Elementary schools Universities Culture Friendship partners See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: List of anthropologists ==A== A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z Fictional anthropologists See also References Wikipedia: Actinopterygii | image = Georgia Aquarium - Giant Grouper.jpg Characteristics Reproduction Fossil record Classification External links Wikipedia: Albert Einstein | image = Einstein 1921 by F Schmutzer - restoration.jpg Biography Early life and education Marriages and children Friends Patent office First scientific papers Academic career 1921–1922: Travels abroad 1930–1931: Travel to the U.S. 1933: Emigration to the U.S. Refugee status Resident scholar at the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study World War II and the Manhattan Project U.S. citizenship Personal life Supporter of civil rights Assisting Zionist causes Love of music Political and religious views Death Scientific career 1905 – Annus Mirabilis papers Thermodynamic fluctuations and statistical physics General principles Theory of relativity and E Photons and energy quanta Quantized atomic vibrations Adiabatic principle and action-angle variables Wave–particle duality Theory of critical opalescence Zero-point energy General relativity and the equivalence principle Gravitational waves Hole argument and Entwurf theory Physical cosmology Modern quantum theory Bose–Einstein statistics Energy momentum pseudotensor Unified field theory Wormholes Einstein–Cartan theory Equations of motion Other investigations Collaboration with other scientists Einstein–de Haas experiment Schrödinger gas model Einstein refrigerator Bohr versus Einstein Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox Non-scientific legacy In popular culture Awards and honors Publications See also Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Afghanistan }} ||}} |}} Etymology History Pre-Islamic period Islamization and Mongol invasion Hotak dynasty and Durrani Empire British influence and independent kingdom Marxist revolution and Soviet war Civil war Taliban Emirate and Northern Alliance Recent history (2002–present) Geography Demographics Ethnic groups Languages Religions Governance Elections and parties Administrative divisions Foreign relations and military Law enforcement Economy Mining Transport Air Rail Roads Health Education Culture Media and entertainment Communication Sports See also Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Albania |common_name = Albania Etymology History Early history Middle Ages Modern First Republic Communism Fourth Republic Geography Biodiversity Climate Administrative divisions Politics Foreign relations Military Economy Primary sector Secondary sector Tertiary sector Infrastructure Science and technology Energy Media Education Health Demographics Urbanization Language Religion Culture Folklore Cuisine Architecture Arts Literature Cinema Sports Diaspora International rankings See also Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Allah Allah (;"Allah". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Etymology Usage Pre-Islamic Arabians Christianity Islam As a loanword English and other European languages Malaysian and Indonesian language In other scripts and languages Typography Unicode See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Algorithms (journal) Algorithms is a peer-reviewed open access mathematics journal concerning design, analysis, and experiments on algorithms. Abstracting and indexing See also References External links Wikipedia: Azerbaijan | image_flag = Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Etymology History Antiquity From the Sasanid period to the Safavid period Contemporary history Independence Geography Landscape Biodiversity Politics Foreign relations Administrative divisions Military Economy Energy Agriculture Tourism Transportation Science and technology Demographics Ethnic groups Urbanization Language Religion Education Culture Music and folk dances Literature Folk art Cuisine Architecture Visual art Cinema Media and media freedom Human rights in Azerbaijan Sports See also Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Amateur astronomy thumb|right|250px|Amateur astronomers watch the night sky during the [[Perseids|Perseid meteor shower.]] Objectives Common tools Common techniques Star hopping Setting circles GoTo telescopes Remote-controlled telescopes Imaging techniques Scientific research Societies Notable amateur astronomers Prizes recognizing amateur astronomers See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Aikido ) Etymology and basic philosophy History Initial development Religious influences International dissemination Proliferation of independent organizations Ki Training Fitness Roles of uke and tori Initial attacks Basic techniques Implementations Weapons Multiple attackers and randori Injuries Mental training Uniforms and ranking Criticisms References External links Wikipedia: Art Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art. Creative art and fine art History Forms, genres, media, and styles Skill and craft Purpose Non-motivated functions Motivated functions Public access Controversies Theory Arrival of Modernism New Criticism and the "intentional fallacy" "Linguistic turn" and its debate Classification disputes Value judgment See also Notes Bibliography Further reading External links Wikipedia: Agnostida | image = Itagnostus interstrictus (White, 1874) - 8 mm 1.JPG Systematics Ecology References External links Wikipedia: Abortion | ICD9 = Types Induced Spontaneous Methods Medical Surgical Labor induction abortion Other methods Safety Mental health Unsafe abortion Live birth Incidence Gestational age and method Motivation Personal Societal Maternal and fetal health Cancer History and religion Society and culture Abortion debate Modern abortion law Sex-selective abortion Anti-abortion violence Other animals Notes References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Abstract (law) In law, an abstract is a brief statement that contains the most important points of a long legal document or of several related legal papers. Abstract of title Clear title Patent law Administrative process Notes See also References External links Wikipedia: American Revolutionary War September 3, 1783A ceasefire in America was proclaimed by Congress on April 11, 1783 in response to a ceasefire agreement between Great Britain and France on January 20, 1783. The final peace treaty was signed on September 3, 1783 and ratified in the U. Background Early seeds Taxation disputes Colonial response Course of the war War breaks out (1775–1776) Political reactions British counter-offensive (1776–1777) British northern strategy fails (1777–1778) Foreign intervention International war breaks out (1778–1780) Europe Americas India Stalemate in the North (1778–1780) War in the South (1778–1781) British defeat in America (1781) North Ministry collapses Final years of the war (1781–1783) Peace of Paris Aftermath Casualties and losses Americans and allies British and allies Financial debts Analysis of combatants Great Britain Armed Forces Recruitment Loyalists and Hessians Leadership Logistics Discipline Strategic deficiencies William Howe Clinton and Cornwallis Campaign issues Patriots African Americans American Indians Race and class See also Notes References Further reading Reference literature External links Bibliographies Wikipedia: Ampere Ampère}} Definition History Realization Proposed future definition Everyday examples CPUs – 1 V DC Portable devices Internal combustion engine vehicles – 12 V DC North American domestic supply – 120 V AC European & Commonwealth domestic supply – 230–240 V AC See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Algorithm thumb|right| [[Flow chart of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest common divisor (g.c. Etymology Informal definition Formalization Expressing algorithms Implementation Computer algorithms Examples Algorithm example Euclid's algorithm Computer language for Euclid's algorithm An inelegant program for Euclid's algorithm An elegant program for Euclid's algorithm Testing the Euclid algorithms Measuring and improving the Euclid algorithms Algorithmic analysis Formal versus empirical Execution efficiency Classification By implementation By design paradigm Optimization problems By field of study By complexity Continuous algorithms Legal issues History: Development of the notion of "algorithm" Ancient Near East Discrete and distinguishable symbols Manipulation of symbols as "place holders" for numbers: algebra Mechanical contrivances with discrete states Mathematics during the 19th century up to the mid-20th century Emil Post (1936) and Alan Turing (1936–37, 1939) J. B. Rosser (1939) and S. C. Kleene (1943) History after 1950 See also Notes References Bibliography Secondary references Further reading External links Wikipedia: Annual plant right|thumb|240px|[[Peas are an annual plant.]] Cultivation Summer Winter Molecular genetics See also References External links Wikipedia: Anthophyta The anthophytes were thought to be a clade comprising plants bearing flower-like structures. The group contained the angiosperms - the extant flowering plants, such as roses and grasses - as well as the Gnetales and the extinct Bennettitales. References Wikipedia: Atlas (disambiguation) An atlas is a collection of maps. Businesses Computing Entertainment Fictional characters Literature and publishing Music Sport Other entertainment Geography Mythology People With the given name Atlas With the surname Atlas Physics Plants and animals Space and astronomy Transport Automotive Aviation Ships and boats Trains Other uses See also Wikipedia: Mouthwash Mouthwash, mouth rinse, oral rinse or mouth bath, is a liquid which is held in the mouth passively or swilled around the mouth by contraction of the perioral muscles and/or movement of the head, and may be gargled, where the head is tilted back and the liquid bubbled at the back of the mouth. Use Benefits and side effects History Research Ingredients Alcohol Antibiotics Benzalkonium chloride Benzydamine/Difflam (analgesics) Benzoic acid Betadine Betamethasone Calcium Cetylpyridinium chloride (antiseptic, antimalodor) Chlorhexidine digluconate and Hexetidine (antiseptic) Diphenhydramine Domiphen bromide Edible oils Essential oils and phenols Fluoride (anticavity) Flavoring agents and Xylitol Glucocorticoids (anti-inflammatory) Hydrogen peroxide Lactoperoxidase (Saliva substitute) Lidocaine/xylocaine Maalox Methyl salicylate Nystatin Persica or alum Providone/iodine Sanguinarine Sodium benzoate or methylparaben (preservatives) Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) Sodium chloride (salt) Sodium lauryl sulfate (foaming agent) Sucralfate Tetracycline (antibiotic) Tranexamic acid Triclosan Water Zinc References External links Wikipedia: Alexander the Great | succession = King of Macedonia Early life Lineage and childhood Adolescence and education Philip's heir Regency and ascent of Macedon Exile and return King of Macedon Accession Consolidation of power Balkan campaign Conquest of the Persian Empire Asia Minor The Levant and Syria Egypt Assyria and Babylonia Persia Fall of the Empire and the East Problems and plots Macedon in Alexander's absence Indian campaign Forays into the Indian subcontinent Revolt of the army Last years in Persia Death and succession After death Division of the empire Will Character Generalship Physical appearance Personality Personal relationships Battle record Legacy Hellenistic kingdoms Founding of cities Hellenization Influence on Rome Legend In ancient and modern culture Historiography Ancestry See also Annotations References Sources Primary sources Secondary sources Further reading External links Wikipedia: Alfred Korzybski | birth_place = Warsaw, Vistula Country, Russian Empire Early life and career General semantics "To be" Anecdotes Influence See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Asteroids (video game) | genre = Multi-directional shooter Gameplay Development and design Reception and legacy Arcade sequels Ports Highest score References External links Wikipedia: Asparagales | authority = Link Description Taxonomy History Pre-Darwinian Post-Darwinian Twentieth century Phylogenetics Phylogeny and APG system Subdivision Changes to family structure in APG III Structure of Asparagales Orchid clade Boryaceae to Hypoxidaceae Ixioliriaceae to Xeronemataceae Xanthorrhoeaceae sensu lato + 'core Asparagales' Evolution Comparison of family structures Uses See also Notes References Bibliography Books Chapters Articles APG Historical sources Websites Reference materials External links Wikipedia: Alismatales |subdivision_ranks = Families Description Taxonomy Early systems Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Phylogeny References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Apiales | subdivision_ranks = Families Taxonomy Gynoecia References Wikipedia: Asterales | subdivision_ranks = Families Taxonomy Biogeography Evolution Economic importance References Wikipedia: Asteroid Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System. The larger ones have also been called planetoids. Discovery Historical methods Manual methods of the 1900s and modern reporting Computerized methods Terminology Formation Distribution within the Solar System Asteroid belt Trojans Near-Earth asteroids Characteristics Size distribution Largest asteroids Rotation Composition Surface features Color Classification Orbital classification Quasi-satellites and horseshoe objects Spectral classification Problems Naming Symbols Exploration Planned and future missions Fiction See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Allocution An allocution, or allocutus, is a formal statement made to the court by the defendant who has been found guilty prior to being sentenced. It is part of the criminal procedure in some jurisdictions using common law. Concept Australia United States See also References Wikipedia: Affidavit An affidavit ( ) is a written sworn statement of fact voluntarily made by an affiant or deponent under an oath or affirmation administered by a person authorized to do so by law. Such statement is witnessed as to the authenticity of the affiant's signature by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public or commissioner of oaths. Australia India Ireland United States See also References Wikipedia: Aries (constellation) | genitive = Arietis History and mythology In non-Western astronomy Features Stars Deep-sky objects Meteor showers Planetary systems References External links Wikipedia: Aquarius (constellation) , genitive History and mythology Depictions In Eastern astronomy Features Stars Planetary systems Deep sky objects Meteor showers Astrology Notes References External links Wikipedia: Anime Anime ( , plural: anime|lead=yes}}) is a Japanese term for hand-drawn or computer animation. The word is the abbreviated pronunciation of "animation" in Japanese, where this term references all animation. Definition and usage Format History Genres Attributes Animation technique Characters Music Industry Awards Globalization Fan response Anime style See also References Notes Sources Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Asterism Asterism may refer to: See also Wikipedia: Ankara |subdivision_type = Country Etymology and names History Ancient history Celtic history Roman history Byzantine history Turkic rulers Turkish republican capital Ecclesiastical history Armenian Catholic (titular) see Latin titular archbishopric Demographics Economy Politics Main sights Ancient/archeological sites Ankara Citadel Roman Theatre Temple of Augustus and Rome Roman Baths Roman Road Column of Julian Mosques Kocatepe Mosque Ahmet Hamdi Akseki Mosque Yeni (Cenab Ahmet) Mosque Hacı Bayram Mosque Ahi Elvan Mosque Alâeddin Mosque Modern monuments Victory Monument Statue of Atatürk Monument to a Secure, Confident Future Hatti Monument Inns Suluhan Çengelhan Rahmi Koç Museum Museums Museum of Anatolian Civilizations Anıtkabir Ankara Ethnography Museum State Art and Sculpture Museum Cer Modern War of Independence Museum Mehmet Akif Literature Museum Library TCDD Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum Ankara Aviation Museum METU Science and Technology Museum Parks Shopping Climate Transportation Ankara Public Transportation Statistics Sports Culture and education Universities Fauna Angora cat Angora rabbit Angora goat Ankara image gallery International relations Twin towns and sister cities Partner cities See also Notes References Further reading Sources and external links Wikipedia: Arabic | pronunciation = , Classification History Old Arabic Old Hijazi and Classical Arabic Neo-Arabic Classical, Modern Standard and spoken Arabic Language and dialect Influence of Arabic on other languages Influence of other languages on Arabic Arabic alphabet and nationalism Lebanon Egypt The language of the Quran and its influence on Poetry Quran's figurative devices Structure Culture and the Quran Arabic and Islam Dialects and descendants Examples Koine Dialect groups Phonology Literary Arabic Vowels Consonants Syllable structure Stress Levels of pronunciation Full pronunciation with pausa Formal short pronunciation Informal short pronunciation Colloquial varieties Grammar Nouns and adjectives Verbs Derivation Writing system Calligraphy Romanization Numerals Language-standards regulators As a foreign language Arabic speakers and other languages See also References External links Wikipedia: Alfred Hitchcock | image = Hitchcock, Alfred 02.jpg Biography Early life: 1899–1930 Born in Great Britain British silent films Early sound films Early Hollywood years: 1931–1945 Hollywood and the Selznick contract Early war years Wartime non-fiction films Post-war Hollywood years: 1945–1953 Later Selznick films Sidney Bernstein and Transatlantic Pictures The canonical Hitchcock films: 1954–1960 Early peak years: Rear Window and Vertigo Later peak years: North by Northwest and Psycho After 1961 to death: 1961–1980 After 1961 Last project and death Aesthetic Psychology of characters Signature appearances in his films Themes, plot devices and motifs Inspiration for themes Style of working Writing Storyboards and production Approach to actors Awards and honours Archives Filmography See also Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Anaconda Anacondas are a group of large snakes of the genus Eunectes. They are found in tropical South America. Description Etymology Species and other uses of the term "anaconda" References Further reading Wikipedia: Altaic languages }} History of the Altaic idea Development of the Macro-Altaic theory Postulated Urheimat Macro-Altaic Urheimat List of Altaicists and critics of Altaic Altaicists Major critics of Altaic Advocates of alternative hypotheses Comparative grammar Reconstructed phonology Consonants Vowels Prosody Sound correspondences Morphological correspondences Selected cognates Personal pronouns Other basic vocabulary Numerals and related words See also References Bibliography Works cited Further reading External links Wikipedia: Austrian German (or ) History General situation of German Standard German in Austria Former spoken standard Special written forms European Union Grammar Verbs Vocabulary Dialects Classification Regional accents See also References Sources Wikipedia: Axiom of choice In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that the Cartesian product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty. It states that for every indexed family (S_i)_{i \in I} of nonempty sets there exists an indexed family (x_i)_{i \in I} of elements such that x_i \in S_i for every i \in I. Statement Nomenclature ZF, AC, and ZFC Variants Restriction to finite sets Usage Examples Criticism and acceptance In constructive mathematics Independence Stronger axioms Equivalents Category theory Weaker forms Stronger forms of the negation of AC Statements consistent with the negation of AC Quotes Notes References External links Wikipedia: Attila | death_date = March 453 Appearance and character Etymology Historiography and source Early life and background Campaigns against the Eastern Roman Empire Solitary kingship In the west Invasion of Italy and death Death Later folklore and iconography Depictions of Attila Notes External links Wikipedia: Aegean Sea | type = Sea Etymology Geography Extent Hydrography History Ancient History Modern history Economy and politics See also References External links Wikipedia: A Clockwork Orange (novel) A Clockwork Orange is a dystopian novel by English writer Anthony Burgess, published in 1962. Set in a near future English society featuring a subculture of extreme youth violence, the teenage protagonist, Alex, narrates his violent exploits and his experiences with state authorities intent on reforming him. Plot summary Part 1: Alex's world Part 2: The Ludovico Technique Part 3: After prison Characters Analysis Background Title Banning and censorship history in the US Writer's appraisal Awards and nominations and rankings Adaptations Release details See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Amsterdam }} Etymology History Founding and Middle Ages Conflict with Spain Centre of the Dutch Golden Age Decline and modernisation 20th century 21st century Geography Water Climate Demographics Historical population Immigration Religions Diversity and immigration Cityscape and architecture Canals Expansion Architecture Parks and recreational areas Economy Port of Amsterdam Tourism Red light district Retail Fashion Culture Museums Music Performing arts Nightlife Festivals Sports Government City government Metropolitan area National capital Symbols Transport Metro, tram, bus P+R Locations Car National rail Airport Cycling Education Notable people Entertainment Sport Originating from elsewhere Media Housing See also Notes and references Literature Attribution Further reading External links Wikipedia: Museum of Work thumb|200px|The Iron is a famous 20th century landmark in central Norrköping See also External links Wikipedia: Audi | logo = Audi-Logo 2016.svg History Birth of the company and its name The merger of the four companies under the logo of four rings Post-World War II New Auto Union unit Modern era Audi 5000 unintended acceleration allegations Model introductions Audi AG today Technology Audi AI Bodyshells Space frame Drivetrains Layout Engines Fuel Stratified Injection Direct-Shift Gearbox LED daytime running lights Multi Media Interface Synthetic Diesel Logistics Models Current model range S and RS models Electric vehicles Production figures Motorsport Rallying In the USA Touring cars 24 Hours of Le Mans Results American Le Mans Series European Le Mans Series World Endurance Championship 2012 2013 2014 Formula E Formula One Marketing Branding Slogans Typography Sponsorships Multitronic campaign Audi TDI Audi e-tron In video games See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Aircraft An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. History Methods of lift Lighter than air – aerostats Heavier-than-air – aerodynes Fixed-wing Rotorcraft Other methods of lift Scale, sizes and speeds Sizes Speeds Propulsion Unpowered aircraft Powered aircraft Propeller aircraft Jet aircraft Other types of powered aircraft Design and construction Structure Aerostats Aerodynes Avionics Flight characteristics Flight envelope Range Flight dynamics Stability Control Impacts of aircraft use Uses for aircraft Military Civil Experimental Model See also Lists Topics References External links Wikipedia: Alfred Nobel Alfred Noble}} Life and career Death Personal life Inventions Nobel Prizes Monuments Criticism References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Alexander Graham Bell | death_place = Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Canada Early life First invention Education First experiments with sound Family tragedy Canada Work with the deaf Continuing experimentation Telephone The race to the patent office Later developments Competitors Family life Later inventions Photophone Metal detector Hydrofoils Aeronautics Eugenics Legacy and honors Honorary degrees Innovators awarded in his name Portrayal in film and television Death See also References Notes Citations Bibliography Further reading External links Patents Multimedia Wikipedia: Anatolia thumb|upright=1.7|The traditional definition of Anatolia within modern TurkeyStephen Mitchell, Anatolia: Land, Men, and Gods in Asia Minor. Definition Onomastics and etymology History Prehistory Ancient Near East (Bronze and Iron Ages) Hattians and Hurrians Assyrian Empire (21st–18th centuries BC) Hittite Kingdom and Empire (17th–12th centuries BC) Neo-Hittite kingdoms (c. 1180–700 BC) Neo-Assyrian Empire (10th–7th centuries BC) Cimmerian and Scythian invasions (8th–7th centuries BC) Greek West Classical antiquity Early Christian period Islamic rule replacing Byzantium Ottoman Empire Modern times Geography Geology Climate Ecoregions Demographics Cuisine See also References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Apple Inc. |Apple Computer, Inc.}} History 1976–84: Founding and incorporation 1984–91: Success with Macintosh 1991–97: Decline and restructuring 1997–2007: Return to profitability 2007–11: Success with mobile devices 2011–present: Post-Steve Jobs era; Tim Cook leadership Products Mac iPod iPhone iPad Apple Watch Apple TV Software Electric vehicles Apple Energy Corporate identity Logo Advertising Brand loyalty Home page Headquarters Stores Corporate affairs Corporate culture Manufacturing Labor practices Environmental practices and initiatives Energy and resources Toxins Green bonds Finance Tax practices Ownership Litigation Privacy stance Charitable causes See also References Bibliography Further reading External links Wikipedia: Aberdeenshire | ISO = GB-ABD History Demographics Economy Major Industries Governance and politics Notable features Hydrology and climate Notable residents References External links Wikipedia: American Civil War , ruins of Richmond, Virginia, Battle of Franklin Prelude to war Causes of secession Slavery Sectionalism Protectionism States' rights Territorial crisis National elections Nationalism and honor Lincoln's election Outbreak of the war Secession crisis Battle of Fort Sumter Attitude of the border states War Mobilization Motivation Prisoners Naval war Union blockade Modern navy evolves Blockade runners Economic impact Rivers Eastern theater Western theater Trans-Mississippi End of the war Conquest of Virginia Confederacy surrenders Diplomacy Union victory and aftermath Results Costs Emancipation Slavery as a war issue Emancipation Proclamation Texas v. White Reconstruction Memory and historiography Lost Cause Beardian historiography Civil War commemoration Technological significance In works of culture and art Literature Film Song Video games See also References Notes Citations Bibliography Further reading External links Wikipedia: Andy Warhol | birth_place = Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S. Biography Early life and beginnings (1928–49) 1950s 1960s Attempted murder (1968) 1970s 1980s Death Foundation Works Paintings Films Filmography Factory in New York Music Books and print Other media Producer and product Personal life Sexuality Religious beliefs Collections Media about Warhol Documentaries Television Honors See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Alp Arslan Soviet Historical Encyclopedia. Volume I. Early career Byzantine struggle State organization Death Legacy References Sources Wikipedia: American Film Institute | location = Los Angeles, California, U.S. Membership History List of programs in brief AFI Conservatory Notable alumni AFI programs AFI Catalog of Feature Films AFI Life Achievement Award AFI Awards AFI Maya Deren Award AFI 100 Years... series AFI film festivals AFI Fest AFI Docs AFI Silver Theatre and Cultural Center The AFI Directing Workshop for Women AFI Directors Series In popular culture 2017 Sexual Harassment Allegations See also References External links Wikipedia: Akira Kurosawa | image = Akirakurosawa-onthesetof7samurai-1953-page88.jpg Biography Childhood to war years (1910–1945) Childhood and youth (1910–35) Director in training (1935–41) Wartime films and marriage (1942–45) Early postwar years to Red Beard (1946–1965) First postwar works (1946–50) International recognition (1950–58) Birth of a company and Red Beard (1959–65) Hollywood ambitions to last films (1966–1998) Hollywood detour (1966–68) A difficult decade (1969–77) Two epics (1978–86) Final works and last years (1987–98) Style and main themes Legacy Legacy of general criticism Reputation among filmmakers Posthumous screenplays Kurosawa Production Company Film studios and awards Documentaries References Notes Citations Sources Further reading External links Wikipedia: Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. It is one of six historic civilizations to arise independently. History Predynastic period Early Dynastic Period (c. 3050–2686 BC) Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC) First Intermediate Period (2181–1991 BC) Middle Kingdom (2134–1690 BC) Second Intermediate Period (1674–1549 BC) and the Hyksos New Kingdom (1549–1069 BC) Third Intermediate Period (1069–653 BC) Late Period (672–332 BC) Ptolemaic period (332-30 BC) Roman period (30BC-641) Government and economy Administration and commerce Social status Legal system Agriculture Animals Natural resources Trade Language Historical development Sounds and grammar Writing Literature Culture Daily life Cuisine Architecture Art Religious beliefs Burial customs Military Technology, medicine, and mathematics Technology Faience and glass Medicine Maritime technology Mathematics Population Legacy See also Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Analog Brothers Analog Brothers were an experimental hip-hop crew featuring Ice Oscillator also known as Ice-T (keyboards, drums, vocals), Keith Korg also known as Kool Keith (bass, strings, vocals), Mark Moog also known as Marc Live (drums, violyns and vocals), Silver Synth also known as Black Silver (synthesizer, lazar bell and vocals), and Rex Roland also known as Pimp Rex (keyboards, vocals, production). Its album Pimp to Eat featured guest appearances by various members of Rhyme Syndicate, Odd Oberheim, Jacky jasper (who appears as Jacky Jasper on the song "We Sleep Days" and H-Bomb on "War"), D. Discography External links Wikipedia: Motor neuron disease | symptoms = Terminology Classification See also References External links Wikipedia: Abjad An abjad (pronounced http://www.oxforddictionaries. Etymology Terminology Origins Impure abjads Addition of vowels Abjads and the structure of Semitic languages Comparative chart of Abjads, extinct and extant See also References Sources Wikipedia: Abugida An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, also known as avugida, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary. This contrasts with a full alphabet, in which vowels have status equal to consonants, and with an abjad, in which vowel marking is absent, partial, or optional. General description Family-specific features Indic (Brahmic) Ethiopic Canadian Aboriginal syllabics Borderline cases Vowelled abjads Phagspa Pahawh Meroitic Shorthand Development Other types of writing systems List of abugidas Abugida-like scripts References External links Wikipedia: ABBA }} History 1958–1970: Before ABBA Member origins and collaboration First live performance and the start of "Festfolket" First record together "Hej, gamle man" 1970–1973: Forming the group First hit as Björn & Benny, Agnetha & Anni-Frid/Frida "Ring Ring" Official naming Official logo 1973–1976: Breakthrough Eurovision Song Contest 1974 Post-Eurovision 1976–1981: Superstardom European and Australian tour Polar Music Studio formation North American and European tours Progression 1981–1982: Final album and performances Final recording sessions Final performances Permanent break 2016–present: Reunion and upcoming hologram project Solo careers Benny Andersson and Björn Ulvaeus Agnetha Fältskog and Anni-Frid Lyngstad Resurgence of public interest Artistry Recording process Fashion, style, videos, advertising campaigns Political position Success in the United States Members Notable ABBA related tributes Musical groups Media Discography Tours Awards and nominations See also References Bibliography Further reading External links Wikipedia: Allegiance }} Etymology Usage Types United Kingdom United States Oath of allegiance In Islam See also References Further reading Wikipedia: Altenberg Altenberg (German for "old mountain") may refer to: Places Germany Austria Switzerland Belgium People See also Wikipedia: MessagePad | discontinued = Details Screen and input Handwriting recognition User interface Connectivity Power options Later efforts and improvements eMate 300 Prototypes Cases Market reception Newton device models Third party licenses Other uses See also References Bibliography External links Additional Resources & Information Reviews Wikipedia: A. E. van Vogt | birth_place = Gretna, Manitoba, Canada Early life and writings Post-war life and work Critical reception Recognition Works Novels Collections Nonfiction See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Anna Kournikova |birth_place= Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union Early life Tennis career 1989–1997: Early years and breakthrough 1998–2000: Success and stardom 2001–2003: Injuries and final years 2004–present: Exhibitions and World Team Tennis Playing style Personal life Media publicity Influences on popular culture Career statistics and awards Books References External links Wikipedia: Alfons Maria Jakob Alfons Maria Jakob (2 July 1884 in Aschaffenburg/Bavaria – 17 October 1931 in Hamburg) was a German neurologist who worked in the field of neuropathology. Associated eponym Bibliography References Wikipedia: Agnosticism Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable. (page 56 in 1967 edition) Defining agnosticism Etymology Qualifying agnosticism Types History Greek philosophy Hindu philosophy Hume, Kant, and Kierkegaard Charles Darwin Thomas Henry Huxley Robert G. Ingersoll William Stewart Ross Bertrand Russell Leslie Weatherhead Demographics Criticism Theistic Christian Atheistic Related concepts See also References External links Wikipedia: Argon Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18. It is in group 18 of the periodic table and is a noble gas. Characteristics History Occurrence Isotopes Compounds Production Industrial In radioactive decays Applications Industrial processes Scientific research Preservative Laboratory equipment Medical use Lighting Miscellaneous uses Safety See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Arsenic Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Characteristics Physical characteristics Isotopes Chemistry Compounds Inorganic compounds Alloys Organoarsenic compounds Occurrence and production History Applications Agricultural Medical use Military Other uses Biological role Bacteria Essential trace element in higher animals Heredity Biomethylation Environmental issues Exposure Occurrence in drinking water San Pedro de Atacama Hazard maps for contaminated groundwater Redox transformation of arsenic in natural waters Wood preservation in the US Mapping of industrial releases in the US Bioremediation Toxicity and precautions Classification Legal limits, food, and drink Occupational exposure limits Ecotoxicity Toxicity in Animals Biological mechanism Exposure risks and remediation Treatment See also References Bibliography Further reading External links Wikipedia: Antimony Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from ) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Characteristics Properties Isotopes Occurrence Compounds Oxides and hydroxides Halides Antimonides, hydrides, and organoantimony compounds History Etymology Production Top producers and production volumes Reserves Production process Supply risk and critical mineral rankings Europe U.S. Applications Flame retardants Alloys Other applications Precautions See also Notes References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Actinium Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89. Actinium gave the name to the actinide series, a group of 15 similar elements between actinium and lawrencium in the periodic table. History Properties Chemical compounds Oxides Halides Other compounds Isotopes Occurrence and synthesis Applications Precautions See also References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Americium Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95. It is a transuranic member of the actinide series, in the periodic table located under the lanthanide element europium, and thus by analogy was named after the Americas. History Occurrence Synthesis and extraction Isotope nucleosyntheses Metal generation Physical properties Chemical properties Chemical compounds Oxygen compounds Halides Chalcogenides and pnictides Silicides and borides Organoamericium compounds Biological aspects Fission Isotopes Applications Ionization-type smoke detector Radionuclide Neutron source Production of other elements Spectrometer Health concerns See also Notes References Bibliography Further reading External links Wikipedia: Astatine Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with symbol At and atomic number 85. It is the rarest naturally occurring element in the Earth's crust, occurring only as the decay product of various heavier elements. Characteristics Physical Chemical Compounds History Isotopes Natural occurrence Synthesis Formation Separation methods Dry Wet Uses and precautions See also Notes References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Atom An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element. Every solid, liquid, gas, and plasma is composed of neutral or ionized atoms. History of atomic theory Atoms in philosophy First evidence-based theory Brownian motion Discovery of the electron Discovery of the nucleus Discovery of isotopes Bohr model Chemical bonding explained Further developments in quantum physics Discovery of the neutron Fission, high-energy physics and condensed matter Structure Subatomic particles Nucleus Electron cloud Properties Nuclear properties Mass Shape and size Radioactive decay Magnetic moment Energy levels Valence and bonding behavior States Identification Origin and current state Formation Earth Rare and theoretical forms Superheavy elements Exotic matter See also Notes References Sources Further reading External links Wikipedia: Arable land Arable land (from Latin ["able to be plow]ed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being [[ploughed and used to grow crops.Oxford English Dictionary, "arable, adj. Arable land area Arable land (hectares per person) Non-arable land See also References External links Wikipedia: Aluminium Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal in the boron group. Physical characteristics Atomic Bulk Isotopes Chemistry Inorganic compounds Rarer oxidation states Aluminium(I) Aluminium(II) Organoaluminium compounds and related hydrides Natural occurrence History Early history Establishing nature of alum Synthesis of metal Rare metal Electrolytic production Etymology Production and refinement Bayer process and Hall–Héroult processes Aluminium chloride electrolysis process Aluminium carbothermic process Recycling Applications General use Aluminium compounds Alumina Sulfates Chlorides Niche compounds Aluminium alloys in structural applications Biology Health concerns Occupational safety Alzheimer's disease Effect on plants Biodegradation See also Notes References Bibliography Further reading External links Wikipedia: Advanced Chemistry Advanced Chemistry is a German hip hop group from Heidelberg, a scenic city in Baden-Württemberg, South Germany. Advanced Chemistry was founded in 1987 by Toni L, Linguist, Gee-One, DJ Mike MD (Mike Dippon) and MC Torch. Market conditions for rap Influences Discography External links Bibliography References Wikipedia: Anglican Communion | footnotes = Ecclesiology, polity and ethos Chicago Lambeth Quadrilateral Instruments of communion Provinces History Global spread of Anglicanism Lambeth 1998 Ecumenical relations Historic episcopate Controversies Same-sex unions and LGBT clergy See also Notes References Citations Bibliography Further reading External links Wikipedia: Arne Kaijser | birth_place = References External links Wikipedia: Archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands. Types See also References External links Wikipedia: Author An author is the originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is thus also a writer. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created. Legal significance of authorship Philosophical views of the nature of authorship Relationship with publisher Self-publishing Types Electronic (e-book) publishing Print-on-demand Traditional publishing Vanity publishing Relationship with editor Compensation See also References Wikipedia: Andrey Markov N.S. Biography Andrey Markov Timeline See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Angst Angst means fear or anxiety (anguish is its Latinate equivalent, and anxious, anxiety are of similar origin). The word angst was introduced into English from the Danish, Norwegian and Dutch word angst and the German word Angst. Existentialism Music See also References External links Wikipedia: Anxiety Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination. It is the subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events, such as the feeling of imminent death. Descriptions Types Existential Stranger, social, and intergroup Trait Choice or decision Anxiety disorders Risk factors Neuroanatomy Genetics Medical conditions Substance-induced Psychological Evolutionary psychology Social Gender socialization See also References External links Wikipedia: A. A. Milne | birth_place = Kilburn, London, England Biography Literary career 1903 to 1925 1926 to 1928 1929 onwards Legacy and commemoration Religious views Works Novels Non-fiction Punch articles Newspaper articles and book introductions Story collections for children Poetry collections for children Story collections Poetry Screenplays and plays References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Asociación Alumni | ground = Tortuguitas History Background Rebirth through rugby Honours See also References External links Wikipedia: Axiom An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments. The word comes from the Greek axíōma (}}) 'that which is thought worthy or fit' or 'that which commends itself as evident. Etymology Historical development Early Greeks Modern development Other sciences Mathematical logic Logical axioms Examples Propositional logic First-order logic Non-logical axioms Arithmetic Euclidean geometry Real analysis Role in mathematical logic=== Deductive systems and completeness Further discussion See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Alpha Alpha (uppercase , lowercase ; , álpha, modern pronunciation álfa) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 1. Uses Greek Greek grammar Math and science International Phonetic Alphabet History and symbolism Etymology Plutarch Alpha and Omega Language Computer encodings References Wikipedia: Alvin Toffler | birth_place = New York City, U.S. Early life Career Ideas and opinions Influences and popular culture Critical assessment Selected awards Personal life Bibliography See also References External links Wikipedia: The Amazing Spider-Man | date = Publication history 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Relaunch and the 2000s 2010s and temporary end of publication 2014 relaunch 2015 relaunch Collected editions References External links Wikipedia: AM AM may refer to: Arts and entertainment Music Television and radio Other media Education Science Technology Timekeeping Transportation Military Other uses See also Wikipedia: Antigua and Barbuda |largest_city = capital Etymology History Geography Islands Climate Ecology Governance Political system Political culture Judiciary Foreign relations Military Administrative divisions Economy Demographics Ethnic groups Languages Largest cities Religion Education Culture Festivals Cuisine Media Sports See also References External links Wikipedia: Azincourt |area km2 = 8.46 Geography Etymology History Population Sights International relations Twin towns/sister cities See also References External links Wikipedia: Albert Speer | chancellor = Early years Nazi architect Joining the Nazis (1930–1934) First Architect of Nazi Germany (1934–1939) Wartime architect (1939–1942) Minister of Armaments Appointment and increasing power Consolidation of arms production Defeat of Nazi Germany Post-war Nuremberg trial Imprisonment Release and later life Legacy and controversy Architectural legacy Actions regarding the Jews Knowledge of the Holocaust Career summary Nazi Party positions Government positions Political ranks Awards and decorations See also References Explanatory notes Citations Bibliography Online sources Further reading External links Wikipedia: Asteraceae Campanian – recent Etymology and pronunciation Distribution Taxonomy Characteristics Roots and stems Leaves Flowers Floral heads Floral structures Fruits and seeds Metabolites Evolution Ecology Uses Genera See also References External links Wikipedia: Apiaceae Apiaceae or Umbelliferae, is a family of mostly aromatic flowering plants named after the type genus Apium and commonly known as the celery, carrot or parsley family. It is the 16th-largest family of flowering plants, with more than 3,700 species in 434 generaStevens, P. Description Systematics Genera Ecology Uses Cultivation Other uses Chemistry See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis), is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body. Axons are also known as nerve fibers. Anatomy Initial segment Nodes of Ranvier Action potentials Development and growth Development Extracellular signaling Intracellular signaling Cytoskeletal dynamics Growth History Injury Classification Motor Sensory Autonomic See also References External links Wikipedia: Aramaic alphabet The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinctive from it by the 8th century BCE. It was used to write the Aramaic language and had displaced the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, itself a derivative of the Phoenician alphabet, for the writing of Hebrew. Origins Achaemenid period Aramaic-derived scripts Languages using the alphabet Ma'loula Letters Matres lectionis Unicode See also References Sources External links Wikipedia: American shot "American shot" is a translation of a phrase from French film criticism, "plan américain" and refers to a medium-long ("knee") film shot of a group of characters, who are arranged so that all are visible to the camera. The usual arrangement is for the actors to stand in an irregular line from one side of the screen to the other, with the actors at the end coming forward a little and standing more in profile than the others. References Wikipedia: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), or acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, is a rare autoimmune disease marked by a sudden, widespread attack of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord. As well as causing the brain and spinal cord to become inflamed, ADEM also attacks the nerves of the central nervous system and damages their myelin insulation, which, as a result, destroys the white matter. Signs and symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Prognosis Motor deficits Neurocognitive Multiple sclerosis Multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis See also References External links Wikipedia: Ataxia | ICD9 = Types Cerebellar Sensory Vestibular Causes Focal lesions Exogenous substances (metabolic ataxia) Radiation poisoning Vitamin B12 deficiency Hypothyroidism Causes of isolated sensory ataxia Non-hereditary cerebellar degeneration Hereditary ataxias Arnold-Chiari malformation (congenital ataxia) Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency Wilson's disease Gluten ataxia Sodium-potassium pump Cerebellar ataxia associated with anti-GAD antibodies Diagnosis Treatment Other uses See also References Further reading Wikipedia: Abdul Alhazred Abdul Alhazred is a fictional character created by American horror writer H. P. Name Biography H. P. Lovecraft August Derleth See also Notes References Wikipedia: Ada Lovelace | birth_place = London, England Biography Early life Adult years Education Death Work First computer program Beyond numbers Controversy over extent of contributions In popular culture Commemoration Titles and styles by which she was known Ancestry Bicentenary Publications See also Notes References Sources External links Wikipedia: August Derleth August William Derleth (February 24, 1909 – July 4, 1971) was an American writer and anthologist. Though best remembered as the first book publisher of the writings of H. Life Career The Sac Prairie Saga Detective and mystery fiction Youth and children's fiction Arkham House and the "Cthulhu Mythos" Other works Bibliography Novels Sac Prairie Saga Solar Pons Short fiction Journals (Sac Prairie Saga) Poems Poetry collections Essays/articles Biography History Anthologies As Stephen Grendon With H. P. Lovecraft With Marc R. Schorer Other collaborations Media adaptations Awards See also Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Alps , , , Etymology and toponymy Geography Passes Orogeny and geology "Four-thousanders" and ascents Minerals Glaciers Rivers and lakes Climate Ecology Flora Fauna History Prehistory to Christianity Christianity, feudalism, and Napoleonic wars Exploration The Romantics The Nazis Alpine people and culture Tourism Transportation Notes References External links Wikipedia: Albert Camus | birth_place = Dréan (then Mondovi), French Algeria Life Early years Marriage Football Revolutionary Union Movement and Europe Death Literary career Algeria Philosophy Absurdism Ideas on the absurd The Myth of Sisyphus Views on totalitarianism Philhellenism, debts to Greek classical thought Works Novels Short stories Non-fiction books Plays Essays Collected essays References Further reading Selected biographies External links Wikipedia: Agatha Christie | birth_place = Torquay, Devon, England Life and career Childhood and adolescence: 1890–1910 Early literary attempts and the First World War: 1910–19 First novels and Poirot: 1919–23 Disappearance Second marriage and later life Death Agatha Christie's estate and subsequent ownership of works Writings Works of fiction Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple Formula and plot devices Titles Character stereotypes Non-fiction writings Critical reception and legacy Interests and influences Archaeology Use of archaeology in her writing Portrayals in fiction See also Notes References Sources Further reading Articles Books External links Wikipedia: The Plague | media_type = Characters Plot summary Part one Part two Part three Part four Part five Critical analysis Publication history Adaptations Notes References External links Wikipedia: Applied ethics Applied ethics is the branch of ethics concerned with the analysis of particular moral issues in private and public life."Applied Ethics" Oxford Bibliographies. Modern approach See also Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Absolute value thumb|thumb|The [[graph of a function|graph of the absolute value function for real numbers]] Terminology and notation Definition and properties Real numbers Complex numbers Proof of the triangle inequality for complex numbers Absolute value function Relationship to the sign function Derivative Antiderivative Distance Generalizations Ordered rings Fields Vector spaces Composition algebras Notes References External links Wikipedia: Analog signal An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e. Comparison to digital signals See also References Wikipedia: Arecales Late Cretaceous - Recent Taxonomy References External links Wikipedia: Hercule Poirot Hercule Poirot (; ) is a fictional Belgian detective, created by Agatha Christie. Poirot is one of Christie's most famous and long-lived characters, appearing in 33 novels, one play (Black Coffee), and more than 50 short stories published between 1920 and 1975. Overview Influences Popularity Appearance and proclivities Methods Life Policeman Private detective Retirement Post–World War II Death Recurring characters Captain Arthur Hastings Mrs. Ariadne Oliver Miss Felicity Lemon Chief Inspector James Harold Japp Major novels Portrayals Stage Film Austin Trevor Tony Randall Albert Finney Peter Ustinov Other Television David Suchet Anime Radio BBC Radio 4 Poirot radio dramas Parodies and references See also References Literature Works Reviews External links Wikipedia: Miss Marple Jane Marple, usually referred to as Miss Marple, is a fictional character appearing in 12 of Agatha Christie's crime novels and in 20 short stories. Miss Marple is an elderly spinster who lives in the village of St. Origins Character Novels featuring Miss Marple Miss Marple short story collections Books about Miss Marple Films Margaret Rutherford Angela Lansbury Helen Hayes Ita Ever Television Joan Hickson Geraldine McEwan (2004-2008) / Julia McKenzie (2009-2013) Anime Stage Radio Other appearances See also References External links Wikipedia: April APR}} History April symbols April observances Month-long observances United States United States Food months Non-Gregorian observances, 2017 Movable observances, 2017 dates First Saturday: April 1 First full week: April 2–8 First Sunday: April 2 First Wednesday: April 5 Second Sunday: April 9 Week of April 14: April 9–15 Second Wednesday: April 12 Second Thursday: April 13 Second Friday of April: April 14 Third Saturday: April 15 Third Monday: April 17 Third Wednesday: April 19 First Thursday after April 18: April 20 Third Thursday: April 20 Week of April 23: April 23–29 Week of the New Moon: April 23–29 Last full week of April: April 23–29 Last Monday: April 24 Wednesday of last full week of April: April 26 Last Wednesday: April 26 April 27 (moves to April 26 if April 27 is on a Sunday): April 27 Fourth Thursday: April 27 Last Friday: April 28 Last Friday in April to first Sunday in May: April 28 – May 7 Last Saturday: April 29 Last Sunday: April 30 Movable Western Christian observances – 2017 Holy Week Easter Week Post Easter Movable Eastern Christian observances – 2017 Fixed observances See also References External links Wikipedia: August Aug}} August symbols Observances Non-Gregorian observances, 2017 Month-long observances United States month-long observances Food Months in the United States Movable Gregorian observances, 2017 1st Tuesday: August 1 Thursday before the first Monday: August 3 1st Friday: August 4 1st Saturday: August 5 1st Sunday: August 6 Sunday on or closest to August 9: August 6 1st Monday: August 7 2nd Tuesday: August 8 2nd Saturday: August 12 2nd Sunday: August 13 2nd Monday: August 14 2nd Tuesday: August 15 3rd Friday: August 18 3rd Saturday: August 19 Third Weekend: August 19–20 3rd Sunday: August 20 3rd Monday: August 21 Sunday nearest August 26: August 27 Last Sunday: August 27 Last Monday: August 28 Last Thursday: August 31 Fixed Gregorian Observances References Further reading Wikipedia: Aaron Aaron ′ahărōn, , Greek (Septuagint): [often called Aaron the priest] () and once Aaron the [[Levite () (Exodus 4:14).|group="note"}} (; or ) is a prophet, high priest, and the brother of Moses in the Abrahamic religions (elder brother in the case of Judaism). Account in the Hebrew Bible High Priest Leadership conflicts Death Family tree Historicity Descendants Aaron in religious traditions Jewish rabbinic literature Christianity Latter Day Saints (LDS) Islam Aaron in the Qur’an Aaron in Muhammad's time Tomb of Aaron Baha'i Art history See also Notes Footnotes References Further reading References in the Qur'an External links Wikipedia: April 6 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances References External links Wikipedia: April 12 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances References External links Wikipedia: April 15 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: April 30 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances References External links Wikipedia: August 22 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: August 27 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Alcohol In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. History Nomenclature Etymology Systematic names Common names Alkyl chain variations in alcohols Simple alcohols Higher alcohols Applications Toxicity Treatment Physical and chemical properties Occurrence in nature Production Ziegler and oxo processes Hydration reactions Biological routes Substitution Reduction Hydrolysis Deprotonation Nucleophilic substitution Dehydration Esterification Oxidation See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Achill Island | native name = Acaill, Oileán Acla History Overlords Immigration Specific historical sites and events Grace O'Malley's Castle Achill Mission Railway Kirkintilloch Fire Kildamhnait The Monastery The Valley House The Deserted Village Archaeology Other places of interest Economy Religion Education Transport Cuisine Sport Population Demographics Architecture Notable people Literature See also References External links Wikipedia: Allen Ginsberg | birth_place = Newark, New Jersey, U.S. Biography Early life and family Relationship with his parents New York Beats "Blake vision" San Francisco Renaissance Biographical references in "Howl" To Paris and the "Beat Hotel", Tangier and India England and the International Poetry Incarnation Continuing literary activity Buddhism and Krishnaism Illness and death Social and political activism Free speech Role in Vietnam War protests Bangladeshi war victims Relationship to communism Gay rights Association with NAMBLA Demystification of drugs CIA drug trafficking Work Inspiration from friends Inspiration from mentors and idols Inspiration from music Style and technique Bibliography See also Notes References Resources Further reading External links Wikipedia: Algebraically closed field In abstract algebra, an algebraically closed field F contains a root for every non-constant polynomial in F[x], the ring of polynomials in the variable x with coefficients in F. Examples Equivalent properties The only irreducible polynomials are those of degree one Every polynomial is a product of first degree polynomials Polynomials of prime degree have roots The field has no proper algebraic extension The field has no proper finite extension Every endomorphism of Fn has some eigenvector Decomposition of rational expressions Relatively prime polynomials and roots Other properties Notes References Wikipedia: August 6 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Anatoly Karpov |birth_place = Zlatoust, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union Early life International career Young master Top-Class Grandmaster Candidate Match with Fischer in 1975 Rivalry with Kasparov FIDE champion again (1993–1999) Towards retirement Personal life after retirement Candidate for FIDE Presidency Style Notable games Hobbies Honours and awards Books References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Aspect ratio The aspect ratio of a geometric shape is the ratio of its sizes in different dimensions. For example, the aspect ratio of a rectangle is the ratio of its longer side to its shorter sidethe ratio of width to height, when the rectangle is oriented as a "landscape". Applications and uses Aspect ratios of simple shapes Rectangles Ellipses Aspect ratios of general shapes Notations See also References Wikipedia: Auto racing Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racingMacmillan Dictionary, or automobile racing) is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. History Categories Open-wheel racing Touring car racing Sports car racing Production-car racing One-make racing Stock car racing Rallying Drag racing Off-road racing Kart racing Historical racing Other categories Use of flags Accidents Racing-car setup Aerodynamics Suspension Tires Brakes Engine Racing driver See also References External links Wikipedia: Anarcho-capitalism Anarcho-capitalism is a political philosophy and school of anarchist thought that advocates the elimination of the state in favor of self-ownership, private property, and free markets. Anarcho-capitalists hold that, in the absence of statute (law by centralized decrees and legislation), society tends to contractually self-regulate and civilize through the discipline of the free market (in what its proponents describe as a voluntary society). Philosophy Ethics Property Private property Common property Economics Contractual society Law and order and the use of violence Branches of anarcho-capitalism Anarcho-capitalism and other anarchist schools History Classical liberalism Nineteenth-century individualist anarchism in the United States Historical precedents similar to anarcho-capitalism Yurok Indians and their Northern California neighbors The legal system of the Ifugao of Northern Luzon The Kapauku Papuans of West New Guinea Free cities of medieval Europe Medieval Iceland American Old West Gaelic Ireland Law merchant, admiralty law and early common law Somalia from 1991 to 2006 Criticisms of anarcho-capitalism Justice and defense Rights and freedom Economics and property Anarcho-capitalist literature Nonfiction Fiction See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: August 9 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Aristophanes | footnotes = † Although many artists' renderings of Aristophanes portray him with flowing curly hair, several jests in his plays indicate that he may have been prematurely bald.Barrett (1964) p. Biography Poetry Rhetoric Old Comedy Topicality Festivity Complexity Dramatic structure Parabasis Influence and legacy Drama Literature Electronic media Music Works Surviving plays Datable non-surviving (lost) plays Undated non-surviving (lost) plays Attributed (doubtful, possibly by Archippus) See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Albert Schweitzer | birth_place = Kaysersberg, Alsace-Lorraine, Germany (now Haut-Rhin, France) Nationality Education Music Theology The Quest of the Historical Jesus (1906) The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle (1931) Paul's "Realism" versus Hellenistic "Symbolism" Medicine Schweitzer's views Colonialism Paternalism Hospital conditions Reverence for life Later life International Albert Schweitzer Prize Sound recordings The Schweitzer Technique Columbia recordings Philips recordings Portrayals See also Notes References Bibliography Further reading Writings by Schweitzer Writings about Schweitzer External links Wikipedia: Austrian School The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism – the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.Carl Menger, Principles of Economics, online at https://www. History Etymology First Wave Early twentieth century Later twentieth century Split among contemporary Austrians Methodology Fundamental tenets Contributions to economic thought Opportunity cost Capital and interest Inflation Economic calculation problem Business cycles Role of government disputed Influence Criticisms General criticisms Business cycle theory Theoretical objections Empirical objections See also References and notes Further reading External links Wikipedia: Abscess An abscess () is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body. Signs and symptoms of abscesses include redness, pain, warmth, and swelling. Signs and symptoms Causes Perianal abscess Incisional abscess Pathophysiology Diagnosis Classification IV drug use Differential Treatment Incision and drainage Antibiotics Packing Loop drainage Primary closure Prognosis Epidemiology Society and culture Etymology Other types References External links Wikipedia: Aalborg Municipality | region = Region Nordjylland Municipal reform of 2007 Geography Surroundings Urban areas in Aalborg Municipality Economy Politics References External links Wikipedia: Aarhus | subdivision_type = Country Etymology Spelling History Early history Middle Ages Industrialisation Second World War Post-World War II years The 2000s Geography Topography Climate Politics and administration Subdivisions Environmental planning Demographics Economy Port of Aarhus Tourism Research parks Cityscape Landmarks Culture Museums Libraries and community centres Performing arts Events and festivals Parks, nature and recreation Food, drink and nightlife Local dialect Sports Education Infrastructure Transport Healthcare Media Twin towns and consulates Notable people Notes and references Further reading External links Wikipedia: Northern cavefish | genus = Amblyopsis References Wikipedia: Abatement Abatement refers generally to a lessening, diminution, reduction, or moderation; specifically, it may refer to: See also Wikipedia: Amateur The Amateur}} See also Wikipedia: Alexis Carrel |birth_place = Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, Rhône, France Biography Contributions to science Vascular suture Wound antisepsis Organ transplants Cellular senescence Honors Alexis Carrel and Lourdes Man, The Unknown (1935, 1939) French Foundation for the Study of Human Problems In popular culture See also References Sources External links Wikipedia: All Souls' Day In Christianity, All Souls' Day commemorates All Souls, the Holy Souls, or the Faithful Departed; that is, the souls of Christians who have died. Observing Christians typically remember deceased relatives on the day. East Syriac tradition Roman Catholicism Background History Liturgical practice All Souls' indulgence Anglican Communion Protestant churches Origins, practices and purposes See also Notes Further reading External links Wikipedia: Anatole France | image = Anatole France young years.jpg Early years Literary career Private life Reputation Works Poetry Prose fiction Memoirs Plays Historical biography Literary criticism Social criticism References External links Wikipedia: André Gide | image = André Gide.jpg Early life The middle years Africa Russia 1930s and 1940s Gide’s life as a writer Writings Struggle for values Sexuality Bibliography See also References External links Wikipedia: Algorithms for calculating variance Algorithms for calculating variance play a major role in computational statistics. A key difficulty in the design of good algorithms for this problem is that formulas for the variance may involve sums of squares, which can lead to numerical instability as well as to arithmetic overflow when dealing with large values. Naïve algorithm Computing shifted data Two-pass algorithm Online algorithm Weighted incremental algorithm Parallel algorithm Example Higher-order statistics Covariance With extimate of the mean Two-pass Online See also References External links Wikipedia: Almond }} Description Tree Drupe Origin and history Etymology and names Cultivation Pollination Diseases Production Culinary uses Almond milk Almond flour and skins Almond syrup Nutrition Health effects Oils Aflatoxins Mandatory pasteurization in California See also References External links Wikipedia: Demographics of Antigua and Barbuda |title = Census population and average annual growth rate Population Vital statistics Structure of the population Ethnic groups The World Factbook demographic statistics Nationality Languages Religions References Wikipedia: Politics of Antigua and Barbuda The politics of Antigua and Barbuda takes place in a framework of a unitary parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, wherein the Sovereign of Antigua and Barbuda is the head of state, appointing a Governor-General to act as vice-regal representative in the nation. A Prime Minister is appointed by the Governor-General as the head of government, and of a multi-party system; the Prime Minister advises the Governor-General on the appointment of a Council of Ministers. Executive branch Legislative branch Political parties and elections Administrative divisions Judicial branch Political pressure groups and leaders International organisation participation References Wikipedia: Telecommunications in Antigua and Barbuda This article is about communications systems in Antigua and Barbuda. Telephone Radio Television Internet See also References Wikipedia: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defence Force The Antigua and Barbuda Defence Force is the armed force of Antigua and Barbuda. The ABDF has responsibility for several different roles: internal security, prevention of drug smuggling, the protection and support of fishing rights, prevention of marine pollution, search and rescue, ceremonial duties, assistance to government programs, provision of relief during natural disasters, assistance in the maintenance of essential services, and support of the police in maintaining law and order. Organization Former deployments Alliances References See also External links Wikipedia: Antisemitism Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.Definition from the Oxford dictionaryanti-Semitism – Definition and More from the Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Origin and usage in the context of xenophobia Etymology Usage Definition Evolution of usage Manifestations Cultural antisemitism Religious antisemitism Economic antisemitism Racial antisemitism Political antisemitism Conspiracy theories New antisemitism Indology History Ancient world Persecutions during the Middle Ages 17th century Enlightenment Islamic antisemitism in the 19th century Secular or racial antisemitism 20th century 21st-century European antisemitism 21st-century Arab antisemitism Causes Current situation Africa Algeria Egypt Libya Morocco South Africa Tunisia Asia Iran Japan Lebanon Malaysia Palestinian territories Pakistan Saudi Arabia Turkey Europe Austria France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Netherlands Norway Poland Russia Spain Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom North America Canada United States South America Venezuela See also References External links Wikipedia: Economy of Azerbaijan $63,98 billion (2016) PPP: $169,3 billion (2016)Rank: 67th Economic history of Azerbaijan Modern era Republic era Macro-economic trend Sectors of the economy Agriculture Manufacturing Services Financial and business services Telecommunications Tourism Currency system Infrastructure Energy Transportation Regulation Business environment Other economic indicators See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Geography of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan is situated in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Three physical features dominate Azerbaijan: the Caspian Sea, whose shoreline forms a natural boundary to the east; the Greater Caucasus mountain range to the north; and the extensive flatlands at the country's center. Topography and drainage Mountains Climate Temperature Rainfall Environmental problems Area and boundaries Islands Resources and land use See also References Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, NATO's Partnership for Peace, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the World Health Organization, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Council of Europe, CFE Treaty, the Community of Democracies; the International Monetary Fund; and the World Bank. International organization participation Countries Information on some of the countries with which Azerbaijan maintains formal relations Europe Africa Americas Asia Oceania No relations Disputes Nagorno-Karabakh/Armenia Caviar diplomacy ESISC report See also Further reading References External links Wikipedia: Azerbaijani Armed Forces | image = Coat of arms of the Azerbaijani Armed Forces.png Overview History of the Azerbaijani military Azerbaijan Democratic Republic World War II Dissolution of the Soviet armed forces Non-combat deaths Land forces Organization Air forces Air defense Training and education Navy Special forces Defense industry International cooperation Turkey United States Russia Israel NATO See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Geography of Armenia thumb|300px|Map of Armenia Physical environment Topography and drainage Climate Environmental problems Area and boundaries Resources and land use Geography Other See also References Wikipedia: Demographics of Armenia The demographics of Armenia is about the demographic features of the population of Armenia, including population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population. Demographics trends Vital statisticsB.R. Mitchell. International historical statistics 1750-2005: Africa. Asia and Oceania United nations. Demographic Yearbooks== Fertility Rate (The Demographic Health Survey) === Structure of the population === Ethnic groups Languages Religions CIA World Factbook demographic statistics Population Urbanization Sex ratio Infant mortality rate Life expectancy at birth Total fertility rate HIV/AIDS Nationality See also References External links Wikipedia: Politics of Armenia The politics of Armenia takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Armenia is the head of state and the Prime Minister of Armenia is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government. History Change to a parliamentary republic Government Legislative branch Political parties and elections Independent Agencies Corruption See also Notes External links Wikipedia: Economy of Armenia $10.529 billion (nominal, 2015)$25. Overview History of the modern Armenian economy Post-communist economic reform Global competitiveness Index of Economic Freedom Domestic business environment Monopolies GDP Growth Cash remittances Secondary sector Retail trade Services sector Tourism Industrial sector Mining Agricultural sector Foreign aid United States European Union External trade Exports Imports Deficit Partners Russia and former Soviet republics China Iran Turkey Georgia Foreign debt Transportation routes and energy lines Internal Through Georgia Through Turkey and Azerbaijan Through Iran Labor Monthly wages Unemployment Migrant workers Appreciation and depreciation of the dram Government revenue and taxation New value-added tax Tax evasion Employee income tax Environmental issues Energy Banking Takeover of Armenian industrial property by the Russian state and Russian companies Controversy over non-transparent deals Production See also Notes Sources Books External links Wikipedia: Transport in Armenia This article considers transport in Armenia. For Soviet transportation, see Transport in the Soviet Union. Railways Total Broad gauge International Links Roadways Paved Unpaved Pipelines Ports and harbors Airports Airports - with paved runways Airports - with unpaved runways References Wikipedia: Armed Forces of Armenia |fit = 637, 776 Treaty compliance General staff Army Military vehicles of Armenian Army (as of 2008-2016)The Military Balance 2016. – Page 178 Self-propelled artillery equipments of Armenian Army (as of 2008-2016) Multiple Rocket Launchers of Armenian Army (as of 2008-2016) Tactical Ballistic Missile Systems of Armenian Army (as of 2008-2016) Air Force Air Defense Military equipment of Armenian Air Defense (as of 2008-2016) Military of Karabakh International military cooperation Russia Collective Security Treaty Organisation NATO Greece Baltic States United States Peacekeeping operations Kosovo Iraq Afghanistan Lebanon References External links Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Armenia Armenia has maintained a policy of complementarism by trying to have positive and friendly relations with Iran, Russia, and the West, including the United States and the European Union since its independence.– "Armenian Foreign Policy Between Russia, Iran And U. Armenian Genocide recognition Disputes Nagorno-Karabakh and independent republic Countries with no diplomatic relations Africa Asia Europe North America Oceania Countries with diplomatic relations African Union Americas Arab League Other international organizations See also Footnotes References External links Wikipedia: Geography of American Samoa |- See also References Wikipedia: Demographics of American Samoa This article is about the demographic features of the population of American Samoa, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. CIA World Factbook demographic statistics Population Age structure Median age Population growth rate Birth rate Death rate Urbanization Sex ratio Infant mortality rate Life expectancy at birth Total fertility rate Nationality Ethnic groups Religions Languages References Wikipedia: Politics of American Samoa Politics of American Samoa takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic dependency, whereby the Governor is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. American Samoa is an unincorporated and unorganized territory of the United States, administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, U. Government Political parties and elections International organization participation See also References Wikipedia: Economy of American Samoa The economy of American Samoa is a traditional Polynesian economy in which more than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic activity is strongly linked to the United States, with which American Samoa conducts the great bulk of its foreign trade. Numbers External links Wikipedia: August 13 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links References Wikipedia: Avicenna ) Name Circumstances Biography Early life Adulthood Later life and death Philosophy Metaphysical doctrine Argument for God's existence Al-Biruni correspondence Theology Thought experiments The Canon of Medicine Liber Primus Naturalium The Book of Healing Earth sciences Philosophy of science Logic Physics Psychology Other contributions Astronomy and astrology Chemistry Poetry Legacy Middle Ages and Renaissance Modern reception Arabic works List of works Persian works See also References Sources Further reading Encyclopedic articles Primary literature Secondary literature Medicine External links Wikipedia: The Ashes | administrator = International Cricket Council 1882 origins Urn Series and matches Quest to "recover those ashes" 1884 to 1896 1897 to 1902 Reviving the legend 1905 to 1912 1920 to 1933 1934 to 1953 1954 to 1971 1972 to 1987 1989 to 2003 2005 to present Summary of results and statistics Match venues Cultural references See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Aristotle (384–322 B. Applicants Science Isotopes Business Computer science Economics Engineering Intelligence Linguistics Literature Mathematics Music Philosophy Psychotherapy Public Policy Signal processing Statistics Other See also References External links Wikipedia: Abner Doubleday |death_date = Early years Military career Early commands and Fort Sumter Brigade and division command in Virginia Gettysburg Washington Postbellum career Theosophy Death Baseball Namesakes and honors In popular culture See also Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: America's National Game America's National Game is a book by Albert Spalding, published in 1911 detailing the early history of the sport of baseball. Much of the story is told first-hand, since Spalding had been involved in the game, first as a player and later an administrator, since the 1850s. See also References Wikipedia: Amplitude modulation Amplitude modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude (signal strength) of the carrier wave is varied in proportion to the waveform being transmitted. Forms of amplitude modulation ITU designations History Continuous waves Early technologies Vacuum tubes Single-sideband Simplified analysis of standard AM Spectrum Power and spectrum efficiency Modulation index Modulation methods Low-level generation High-level generation Demodulation methods See also References External links Wikipedia: Augustin-Jean Fresnel | birth_place = Broglie, Kingdom of France(now Eure, France) Personal life and education Career Fresnel bright spot Polarized light research References External links Wikipedia: Abbot Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity. The office may also be given as an honorary title to a clergyman who is not the head of a monastery. Origins Monastic history Early history Later Middle Ages Appointments General information Modern practices Abbatial hierarchy Modern abbots not as superior Eastern Christian Honorary and other uses of the title Abbots in art and literature See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Ardipithecus | image = Ardi.jpg Ardipithecus ramidus Ardi Ardipithecus kadabba Life-style Alternative views and further studies Ardipithecus ramidus and the evolution of human vocal ability See also References External links Wikipedia: Assembly line thumb|[[Hyundai's car assembly line]] Concepts Simple example History Industrial revolution Interchangeable parts Late 19th century steam and electric conveyors 20th century Improved working conditions Sociological problems See also References Footnotes Works cited External links Wikipedia: Adelaide | lga = History Before European settlement 19th century 20th century 21st century Geography Urban layout Housing Climate Governance Local governments Demography Age structure Religion Economy Defence industry Employment statistics House prices Education and research Primary and secondary education Tertiary education Research Cultural Arts and entertainment Concert venues Media Newspapers Television Radio Icons Sport Infrastructure Health Transport Airports Utilities See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Alan Garner |birth_place = Congleton, Cheshire, England Biography Early life: 1934–56 The Weirdstone of Brisingamen and The Moon of Gomrath: 1957–64 Elidor, The Owl Service and Red Shift: 1964–73 The Stone Book series and folkloric collections: 1974–94 Strandloper, Thursbitch and Boneland: 1995–present Personal life Literary style Recognition and legacy Awards Television and radio adaptations Works Novels Short story collections Other books See also References Footnotes Sources Further reading External links Wikipedia: August 2 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans. Places In Canada In the United States Art, entertainment, and media Companies and labels Music Groups Albums Songs Other art, entertainment, and media Enterprises and organizations Sports Structures Transportation Airlines Motor vehicles Railroads and trains Ships Other uses See also Wikipedia: Algebraic number An algebraic number is any complex number (including real numbers) that is a root of a non-zero polynomial (i.e. Examples Properties The field of algebraic numbers Related fields Numbers defined by radicals Closed-form number Algebraic integers Special classes of algebraic number Notes References Wikipedia: Automorphism In mathematics, an automorphism is an isomorphism from a mathematical object to itself. It is, in some sense, a symmetry of the object, and a way of mapping the object to itself while preserving all of its structure. Definition Automorphism group Examples History Inner and outer automorphisms See also References External links Wikipedia: Accordion Accordions (from 19th century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds"accordion, entry in Online Etymology Dictionary) are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist. Construction Universal components Bellows Body Pallet mechanism Variable components Right-hand manual systems Left-hand manual systems Reed ranks and switches Classification of chromatic and piano type accordions Straps Unusual accordions History Use in various music genres Use in traditional music Use in popular music Use in classical music Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Colombia Mexico North Korea Use in heavy metal music Manufacturing process Other audio samples See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is Intelligence displayed by machines, in contrast with the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals. In computer science AI research is defined as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal. History Goals Reasoning, problem solving Knowledge representation Planning Learning Natural language processing Perception Motion and manipulation Social intelligence Creativity General intelligence Approaches Cybernetics and brain simulation Symbolic Cognitive simulation Logic-based Anti-logic or scruffy Knowledge-based Sub-symbolic Embodied intelligence Computational intelligence and soft computing Statistical Integrating the approaches Tools Search and optimization Logic Probabilistic methods for uncertain reasoning Classifiers and statistical learning methods Neural networks Deep feedforward neural networks Deep recurrent neural networks Control theory Languages Evaluating progress Applications Competitions and prizes Healthcare Automotive Finance and Economics Video games Platforms Education in AI Partnership on AI Philosophy and ethics The limits of artificial general intelligence Potential risks and moral reasoning Existential risk Devaluation of humanity Decrease in demand for human labor Artificial moral agents Machine ethics Malevolent and friendly AI Machine consciousness, sentience and mind Consciousness Computationalism and functionalism Strong AI hypothesis Robot rights Superintelligence Technological singularity Transhumanism In fiction See also Notes References AI textbooks History of AI Other sources Further reading External links Wikipedia: Afro Celt Sound System | current_members = Formation Split Members Discography References External links Wikipedia: Ancient philosophy This page lists some links to ancient philosophy. In Western philosophy, the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire marked the ending of Hellenistic philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of Medieval philosophy, whereas in Eastern philosophy, the spread of Islam through the Arab Empire marked the end of Old Iranian philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of early Islamic philosophy. Introduction Ancient Chinese philosophy Schools of thought Hundred Schools of Thought Early Imperial China Philosophers Ancient Greek and Roman philosophy Presocratic philosophers Classical Greek philosophers Hellenistic philosophy Hellenistic schools of thought Early Roman and Christian philosophy Philosophers during Roman times Ancient Indian philosophy Vedic philosophy Sramana philosophy Classical Indian philosophy Ancient Indian philosophers 1st millennium BCE Philosophers of Vedic Age (2000–600 BCE) Philosophers of Axial Age (600–185 BCE) Philosophers of Golden Age (184 BCE – 600 CE) Ancient Iranian philosophy Zoroastrianism Pre-Manichaean thought Manichaeism Mazdakism Zurvanism Philosophy and the Empire Literature Ancient Jewish philosophy First Temple (c. 900 BCE to 587 BCE) Assyrian exile (587 BCE to 516 BCE) Second Temple (516 BCE to 70 CE) Early Roman exile (70 CE to c. 600 CE) See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Anaximander BC Biography Theories Apeiron Cosmology Multiple worlds Meteorological phenomena Origin of humankind Other accomplishments Cartography Gnomon Prediction of an earthquake Interpretations Works See also Footnotes References Primary sources Secondary sources External links Wikipedia: APL APL is an abbreviation, acronym, or initialism that may refer to: Organizations Science and technology Computers Software licences Other uses Wikipedia: Architect An architect is a person who plans, designs, and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings, that have as their principal purpose human occupancy or use. Origins Architecture Practice Design role Means of design Environmental role Construction role Alternate practice and specializations Professional requirements Professional title distinctions Fees Professional organizations Prizes, awards, and titles See also References Wikipedia: Abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase. History Style conventions in English Lowercase letters Periods (full stops) and spaces Plural forms Conventions followed by publications and newspapers United States United Kingdom Miscellaneous and general rules Measurement shorthand—symbol or abbreviation Syllabic abbreviation Usage Languages other than English Organizations See also References External links Wikipedia: Aphrodite Aphrodite ( ; Aphrodite) is the Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation. She is identified with the planet Venus; her Roman equivalent is the goddess . Etymology Origins Near Eastern love goddess Indo-European dawn goddess Forms of Aphrodite Worship Mythology Birth Adulthood Adonis Judgment of Paris Other myths Consorts and children Gallery Post-classical culture See also Notes References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: April 1 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances References External links Wikipedia: Antisymmetric relation In mathematics, a binary relation R on a set X is anti-symmetric if there is no pair of distinct elements of X each of which is related by R to the other. More formally, R is anti-symmetric precisely if for all a and b in X Examples See also References Wikipedia: Aleister Crowley | birth_place = Royal Leamington Spa, WarwickshireEngland Early life Youth: 1875–94 Cambridge University: 1895–98 The Golden Dawn: 1898–99 Mexico, India, Paris, and marriage: 1900–03 Developing Thelema Egypt and The Book of the Law: 1904 Kangchenjunga and China: 1905–06 The A∴A∴ and the Holy Books of Thelema: 1907–09 Algeria and the Rites of Eleusis: 1909–11 Ordo Templi Orientis and the Paris Working: 1912–14 United States: 1914–19 Abbey of Thelema: 1920–23 Later life Tunisia, Paris, and London: 1923–29 Berlin and London: 1930–38 Second World War and death: 1939–47 Beliefs and thought Magick and theology Personal life Views on race and gender Legacy and influence Bibliography References Footnotes Sources External links Wikipedia: Afterlife The afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body. According to various ideas about the afterlife, the essential aspect of the individual that lives on after death may be some partial element, or the entire soul or spirit, of an individual, which carries with it and may confer personal identity or, on the contrary, may not, as in Indian nirvana. Different metaphysical models Reincarnation Heaven and Hell Ancient religions Ancient Egyptian religion Ancient Greek and Roman religions Norse religion Abrahamic religions Judaism She'ol World to Come Reincarnation in Jewish tradition Christianity The Catholic Church Limbo Purgatory Orthodox Christianity The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints Jehovah's Witnesses Seventh-day Adventists Islam Ahmadiyya Sufi Bahá'í Faith Indian religions Hinduism Buddhism Sikhism Others Traditional African religions Shinto Unitarian Universalism Spiritualism Wicca Zoroastrianism Parapsychology Philosophy Modern philosophy Process philosophy Science Popular culture Film Television See also References Notes Further reading External links Wikipedia: Astrometry thumb|right|300px|Illustration of the use of [[interferometry in the optical wavelength range to determine precise positions of stars. Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech]] History Applications Statistics Computer programs In fiction See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Athena Athena (; Attic Greek: , Athēnā, or , Athēnaia; Epic: , Athēnaiē; Doric: , Athānā) or Athene (; Ionic: , Athēnē), often given the epithet Pallas (; ), is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, craft, and war.Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature, s. Etymology Origins Cult and patronages Epithets and attributes Mythology Birth Other tales Pallas Athena Athena Parthenos Erichthonius Medusa and Tiresias Lady of Athens Counselor Judgment of Paris Roman fable of Arachne Classical art Post-classical culture Genealogy See also Notes References Bibliography Ancient sources Modern sources External links Wikipedia: Amber Diceless Roleplaying Game The Amber Diceless Roleplaying Game is a role-playing game created and written by Erick Wujcik, set in the fictional universe created by author Roger Zelazny for his Chronicles of Amber. The game is unusual in that no dice are used in resolving conflicts or player actions; instead a simple diceless system of comparative ability, and narrative description of the action by the players and gamemaster, is used to determine how situations are resolved. History Setting System Attributes The Attribute Auction Psyche in Amber DRPG compared to the Chronicles Powers Artifacts, Personal shadows and Constructs Stuff Conflict resolution The 'Golden Rule' Community References External links Wikipedia: Athene (disambiguation) Athene or Athena is the shrewd companion of heroes and the goddess of heroic endeavour in Greek mythology. People with the given name See also Wikipedia: Alloy An alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element. Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character. Introduction Terminology Theory Heat-treatable alloys Substitutional and interstitial alloys History and examples Meteoric iron Bronze and brass Amalgams Precious-metal alloys Pewter Steel and pig iron Alloy steels Precipitation-hardening alloys See also References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Artistic revolution Throughout history, forms of art have gone through periodic abrupt changes called artistic revolutions. Movements have come to an end to be replaced by a new movement markedly different in striking ways. Artistic revolution and political revolutions Artistic revolution of style Scientific and Technological Faking revolution: the C.I.A. and Abstract Expressionism Artistic Movements Ancient & Classical Art Medieval & Gothic Renaissance Mannerism Baroque Rococo Neo-classical Romanticism References Wikipedia: Agrarianism Agrarianism is a social philosophy or political philosophy which values rural society as superior to urban society, the independent farmer as superior to the paid worker, and sees farming as a way of life that can shape the ideal social values.Thompson, Paul. Philosophy History Agrarian parties Africa Tunisia Europe Bulgaria Czechoslovakia France Ireland Latvia Lithuania Poland Romania Serbia Ukraine Oceania Australia New Zealand Back-to-the-land movement See also References Further reading Agrarian values Primary sources North America Global South External links Wikipedia: Atomic Atomic may refer to: video game See also Wikipedia: Angle In planar geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle. Identifying angles Types of angles Individual angles Equivalence angle pairs Vertical and adjacent angle pairs Combining angle pairs Polygon related angles Plane related angles Angle addition postulate Units Positive and negative angles Alternative ways of measuring the size of an angle Astronomical approximations Angles between curves Bisecting and trisecting angles Dot product and generalisations Inner product Angles between subspaces Angles in Riemannian geometry Hyperbolic angle Angles in geography and astronomy See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Asa ASA}} People Places Other See also Wikipedia: Acoustics thumb|Artificial omni-directional sound source in an [[anechoic chamber]] History Early research in acoustics Age of Enlightenment and onward Fundamental concepts of acoustics Definition Wave propagation: pressure levels Wave propagation: frequency Transduction in acoustics Acoustician Education Subdisciplines Archaeoacoustics Aeroacoustics Acoustic signal processing Architectural acoustics Bioacoustics Electroacoustics Environmental noise and soundscapes Musical acoustics Psychoacoustics Speech Ultrasonics Underwater acoustics Vibration and dynamics Professional societies Academic journals See also Notes and references Further reading External links Wikipedia: Atomic physics Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. It is primarily concerned with the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and Isolated atoms Electronic configuration History and developments Significant atomic physicists See also References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: American Sign Language |speakers2=L2 users: Used as L2 by many hearing people and by Hawaii Sign Language speakers. Classification History Population Geographic distribution Varieties Stigma Writing systems Phonology Grammar Morphology Fingerspelling Syntax Iconicity See also Notes References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Applet In computing, an applet is any small application that performs one specific task that runs within the scope of a dedicated widget engine or a larger program, often as a plug-in."AskOxford: applet", Oxford Dictionaries. History Applet as an extension of other software Web-based Applets Applet Vs. Subroutine Java Applet Security Open Platform Applets Java Applets See also References External links Wikipedia: Alternate history }} Definition History of literature Antiquity and medieval 19th century Early 20th century and the era of the pulps Time travel as a means of creating historical divergences Cross-time stories Paratime themes Quantum theory of many worlds Rival paratime worlds Major writers explore alternate histories Contemporary alternate history in popular literature In the contemporary fantasy genre Video games Online See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Atomic orbital In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom. This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron of an atom in any specific region around the atom's nucleus. Electron properties Formal quantum mechanical definition Types of orbitals History Early models Bohr atom Modern conceptions and connections to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle Orbital names Hydrogen-like orbitals Quantum numbers Complex orbitals Real orbitals Shapes of orbitals Orbitals table Qualitative understanding of shapes Orbital energy Electron placement and the periodic table Relativistic effects Transitions between orbitals See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Amino acid thumbnail|300px|The structure of an alpha amino acid in its un-ionized form History General structure Isomerism Side chains Zwitterions Isoelectric point Occurrence and functions in biochemistry Proteinogenic amino acids Non-proteinogenic amino acids D-amino acid natural abundance Non-standard amino acids In human nutrition Non-protein functions Uses in industry Expanded genetic code Nullomers Chemical building blocks Biodegradable plastics Reactions Chemical synthesis Peptide bond formation Biosynthesis Catabolism Physicochemical properties of amino acids Table of standard amino acid abbreviations and properties See also References and notes Further reading External links Wikipedia: Alan Turing | image = Alan Turing Aged 16.jpg Early life Education School Christopher Morcom University and work on computability Cryptanalysis Bombe Hut 8 and the naval Enigma Turingery Delilah Early computers and the Turing test Pattern formation and mathematical biology Conviction for indecency Chess algorithm Death Recognition and tributes Tributes by universities and research institutions Government apology and pardon Centenary celebrations UK celebrations Portrayal in adaptations Theatre Literature Music Film Awards and honours See also Notes References Further reading Articles Books Works of Turing Other External links Wikipedia: Area Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane. Surface area is its analog on the two-dimensional surface of a three-dimensional object. Formal definition Units Conversions Non-metric units Other units including historical History Circle area Triangle area Quadrilateral area General polygon area Areas determined using calculus Area formulas Polygon formulas Rectangles Dissection, parallelograms, and triangles Area of curved shapes Circles Ellipses Surface area General formulas Areas of 2-dimensional figures Area in calculus Bounded area between two quadratic functions Surface area of 3-dimensional figures General formula for surface area List of formulas Relation of area to perimeter Fractals Area bisectors Optimization See also References External links Wikipedia: Astronomical unit | units2 = imperial & US units Symbol usage Development of unit definition Usage and significance History Developments Examples See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only. Dictionary definitions History of the term The present day concept of an 'artist' Training and employment Examples of art and artists See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Actaeon Actaeon (; Aktaion),He was sometimes called Actaeus (), as in the poetic fragment quoted at Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.4. The plot Names of the dogs who devoured Actaeon The "bed of Actaeon" Parallels in Akkadian and Ugarit poems Symbolism regarding Actaeon Actaeon in art Royal House of Thebes family tree Notes References External links Wikipedia: Anglicanism Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. Terminology Definition Anglican identity Early history Development Theories Doctrine "Catholic and Reformed" Guiding principles Distinctives of Anglican belief Anglican divines Churchmanship Sacramental doctrine and practice Eucharistic theology Practices Book of Common Prayer Worship Eucharistic discipline Divine office "Quires and Places where they sing" Organisation of the Anglican Communion Principles of governance Archbishop of Canterbury Conferences Ordained ministry Episcopate Priesthood Diaconate Laity Religious orders Worldwide distribution Ecumenism Theological diversity Conflicts within Anglicanism Continuing Anglican movement Social activism Working conditions and Christian socialism Pacifism After World War II Ordinariates within the Roman Catholic Church Notes References Footnotes Bibliography Further reading External links Wikipedia: Athens |image_skyline = Etymology History Geography Geology Climate Administration Municipality (City) of Athens Athens Urban Area Athens Metropolitan Area Cityscape Architecture Urban sculpture Neighbourhoods Urban and suburban municipalities Parks and zoos Demographics Details Culture and contemporary life Archaeological hub Museums Tourism Entertainment and performing arts Sports Music Economy Education Environment Transport Bus transport Athens Metro Electric railway (ISAP) Commuter/suburban rail (Proastiakos) Tram Athens International Airport Railways and ferry connections Motorways Olympic Games 1896 Summer Olympics 1906 Summer Olympics 2004 Summer Olympics Special Olympics 2011 International relations Twin towns – sister cities Partnerships Other locations named after Athens See also References External links Wikipedia: Anguilla | image_map = Anguilla in United Kingdom.svg Name History Governance Political system Defence Population Demographics Religion Languages Culture Cuisine Music Education Sports Natural history Wildlife Geography and geology Geology Climate Temperature Rainfall Economy Transportation Air Road Boat See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Telecommunications in Anguilla This article is about communications systems in Anguilla. Telephone Mobile Phone (GSM) Radio Television Internet See also References Wikipedia: Ashmore and Cartier Islands }} Geography History Governance Ecology and environment Ashmore Reef Commonwealth Marine Reserve Cartier Island Commonwealth Marine Reserve Economy Migration See also References Notes External links Wikipedia: Acoustic theory Acoustic theory is a scientific field that relates to the description of sound waves. It derives from fluid dynamics. Derivation of the governing equations Conservation of momentum Assumption 1: Newtonian fluid Assumption 2: Irrotational flow Assumption 3: No body forces Assumption 4: No viscous forces Assumption 5: Small disturbances Assumption 6: Homogeneous medium Assumption 7: Medium at rest Conservation of mass Assumption 1: Small disturbances Assumption 2: Homogeneous medium Assumption 3: Medium at rest Assumption 4: Ideal gas, adiabatic, reversible Governing equations in cylindrical coordinates Time harmonic acoustic equations in cylindrical coordinates Special case: No z-dependence References See also Wikipedia: Alexander Mackenzie (politician) |birth_place = Logierait, Scotland Early life Early political involvement Prime Minister (1873–1878) Supreme Court appointments Later life His Character Legacy Namesakes Other honours See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Ashoka " and "Asoka" redirect here. For other uses, see Ashoka (disambiguation)}} Biography Ashoka's early life Rise to power Conquest of Kalinga Marriage Buddhist conversion Death and legacy Buddhist kingship Historical sources Symbolism Perceptions and historiography Focus of debate Legends of Ashoka Ashoka and the relics of the Buddha Contributions Approach towards religions Global spread of Buddhism Hellenistic world As administrator Animal welfare Ashoka Chakra Stone architecture Pillars of Ashoka (Ashokstambha) Lion Capital of Ashoka (Ashokmudra) Constructions credited to Ashoka In art, film and literature See also References Citations Sources External links Wikipedia: American (word) The meaning of the word American in the English language varies according to the historical, geographical, and political context in which it is used. American is derived from America, a term originally denoting all of the New World (also called the Americas). In some expressions, it retains this Pan-American sense, but its usage has evolved over time and, for various historical reasons, the word came to denote people or things specifically from the United States of America. Other languages History Usage at the United Nations Cultural views Spain and Hispanic America Canada Portugal and Brazil In other contexts International law U.S. commercial regulation Alternatives See also Notes References Works cited External links Wikipedia: Ada (programming language) DDC-I Score Features History Standardization Language constructs "Hello, world!" in Ada Data types Control structures Packages, procedures and functions Concurrency Pragmas See also References International standards Rationale Books Archives External links Wikipedia: Alfonso Cuarón | birth_place = Mexico City, Mexico Early life Career Sólo con tu pareja International success Personal life Filmography Feature films Short films Documentary films TV Awards and nominations See also References External links Wikipedia: Arianism In Christianity, Arianism is a Christological concept which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, is distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to the Father.https://ehrmanblog. Origin Beliefs Homoian Arianism Struggles with Orthodoxy First Council of Nicaea Aftermath of Nicaea Council of Constantinople Among medieval Germanic tribes From the 5th to the 7th century From the 16th to the 19th century Today Adherents See also References Notes Bibliography Further reading External links Wikipedia: August 1 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Antoninus Pius 7 March 161 Early life Childhood and family Marriage and children Favor with Hadrian Emperor A non-military reign Economy and administration Legal reforms Death Diplomatic mission to China Historiography In later scholarship Descendants Notes References External links Wikipedia: August 3 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Advanced Encryption Standard – Broken link! Definitive standards Description of the cipher High-level description of the algorithm The SubBytes step The ShiftRows step The MixColumns step The AddRoundKey step Optimization of the cipher Security Known attacks Side-channel attacks NIST/CSEC validation Test vectors Performance Implementations See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: April 26 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances References External links Wikipedia: Argot An argot (; from French argot 'slang') is a secret language used by various groups—e.g. See also References External links Wikipedia: Anisotropy Anisotropy , is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy. It can be defined as a difference, when measured along different axes, in a material's physical or mechanical properties (absorbance, refractive index, conductivity, tensile strength, etc. Fields of interest Computer graphics Chemistry Real-world imagery Geophysics and geology Medical acoustics Material science and engineering Microfabrication Neuroscience Atmospheric radiative transfer See also References External links Wikipedia: Alpha decay Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two. An alpha particle is identical to the nucleus of a helium-4 atom, which consists of two protons and two neutrons. History Mechanism Uses Toxicity References Notes External links Wikipedia: Extreme poverty Extreme poverty, absolute poverty, destitution, or penury, was originally defined by the United Nations in 1995 as "a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on access to services. Defining extreme poverty Income-based definition Common criticism/alternatives Current trends Getting to zero Exacerbating factors International conferences Millennium Summit 2005 World Summit Post-2015 Development Agenda UN LDC conferences Organizations working to end extreme poverty International organizations World Bank UN Bilateral organizations USAID DfID Non-governmental movements NGOs Campaigns See also References External links Wikipedia: Analytical Engine The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage. It was first described in 1837 as the successor to Babbage's difference engine, a design for a mechanical computer. Design Construction Instruction set Influence Predicted influence Computer science Comparison to other early computers In popular culture References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Augustus Gaius Octavius|Gaius Julius Caesar}} Name Early life Rise to power Heir to Caesar Growing tensions First conflict with Antony Second Triumvirate Proscriptions Battle of Philippi and division of territory Rebellion and marriage alliances War with Pompeius War with Antony Change to Augustus First settlement Second settlement Primary reasons for the Second settlement Additional powers Conspiracy Stability and staying power War and expansion Death and succession Legacy Revenue reforms Month of August Building projects Physical appearance and official images Ancestry Descendants See also Footnotes References Bibliography Further reading External links Wikipedia: Geography of Antarctica | area ranking = 2nd (unofficially) Regions Volcanoes West Antarctica Areas Seas Ice shelves Islands East Antarctica Research stations Territorial landclaims Dependences and territories See also References Sources External links Wikipedia: Transport in Antarctica Transport in Antarctica has transformed from explorers crossing the isolated remote area of Antarctica by foot to a more open area due to human technologies enabling more convenient and faster transport, predominantly by air and water, as well as land. Land transport Roads Vehicles Water transport Air transport See also References External links Wikipedia: Geography of Alabama right|float|frame|Physiographic regions in Alabama Physical features Flora and fauna Climate and soil Wetumpka Meteor Crater Public lands See also References External links Wikipedia: List of Governors of Alabama border Governors Governor of the Territory of Alabama Governors of the State of Alabama Living former governors Notes References External links Wikipedia: Apocrypha Apocrypha are works, usually written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin.Little, Williams. Introduction Examples Esoteric writings and objects Spurious writings Other Metaphorical usage Texts Judaism Intertestamental Christianity Disputes over canonicity New Testament apocrypha List of Sixty Confucianism and Taoism Buddhism See also References Sources External links Wikipedia: Antarctic Treaty System | long_name = Antarctic Treaty System Articles of the Antarctic Treaty Other agreements Bilateral treaties Meetings Parties Antarctic Treaty Secretariat Legal system Argentina Australia United States New Zealand South Africa See also References External links Wikipedia: Alfred Lawson | birth_place = London, England Baseball career (1888–1907) Union Professional League Aviation career (1908–1928) Lawsonomy (1929–1954) Personal See also References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Ames, Iowa,_Iowa | leader_title2 = House History,_Iowa#History Geography,_Iowa#Geography Campustown,_Iowa#Campustown Climate,_Iowa#Climate Demographics,_Iowa#Demographics 2010 census,_Iowa#2010_census 2000 census,_Iowa#2000_census Metropolitan area,_Iowa#Metropolitan_area Economy,_Iowa#Economy Top employers,_Iowa#Top_employers Arts and culture,_Iowa#Arts_and_culture Popular culture,_Iowa#Popular_culture Sports,_Iowa#Sports Parks and recreation,_Iowa#Parks_and_recreation Education,_Iowa#Education Iowa State University,_Iowa#Iowa_State_University Media,_Iowa#Media Infrastructure,_Iowa#Infrastructure Transportation,_Iowa#Transportation Health care,_Iowa#Health_care Notable people,_Iowa#Notable_people Acting,_Iowa#Acting Artists and photographers,_Iowa#Artists_and_photographers Musician,_Iowa#Musician Journalists,_Iowa#Journalists Politicians,_Iowa#Politicians Scientists,_Iowa#Scientists Writers and poets,_Iowa#Writers_and_poets Other,_Iowa#Other Other topics,_Iowa#Other_topics Politics,_Iowa#Politics See also,_Iowa#See_also References,_Iowa#References External links,_Iowa#External_links Wikipedia: Abalone }} Description Distribution Structure and properties of the shell Diseases and pests Human use Farming Consumption Sport harvesting Australia United States New Zealand South Africa Channel Islands Decorative items Native use Threat of extinction Species Synonyms See also Citations References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Abbess thumb|Eufemia Szaniawska, Abbess of the Benedictine Monastery in [[Nesvizh|Nieśwież with a crosier, c. 1768, National Museum in Warsaw]] Description Roles and responsibilities History See also Footnotes References Wikipedia: Abdominal surgery The term abdominal surgery broadly covers surgical procedures that involve opening the abdomen. Surgery of each abdominal organ is dealt with separately in connection with the description of that organ (see stomach, kidney, liver, etc. Types Complications See also References Wikipedia: Abduction Abduction may refer to: Of a person or people Sciences Media Film and television Literature Music See also Wikipedia: Abensberg | image_plan = Abensberg in KEH.svg Geography Divisions History Arms Twinning Economy and Infrastructure Transport Public facilities Schools Culture and sightseeing Theatre Museums Kuchlbauer Brewery Image gallery Missing memorial Regular events Notable residents Sons and daughters of the town People who have worked in the town See also References External links Wikipedia: Arminianism Arminianism is based on theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609) and his historic supporters known as Remonstrants. His teachings held to the five solae of the Reformation, but they were distinct from particular teachings of Martin Luther, Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, and other Protestant Reformers. History Baptists Methodists Current landscape Theology Classical Arminianism Wesleyan Arminianism Other variations Open theism Corporate view of election Arminianism and other views Comparison among Protestants Common misconceptions Comparison with Calvinism Similarities Differences See also Notes Further reading External links Wikipedia: The Alan Parsons Project soft rock Career 1974–1976: Formation and debut 1977–1990: Mainstream success and final releases The musical Freudiana The Sicilian Defence Alan Parsons's solo career Sound Members Discography Studio albums Alan Parsons and Eric Woolfson album Important compilations Related